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Flashcards in basic terms Deck (60):
1

Normal movement of gases into and out of the lungs?

ventilation

2

gas exchange between the blood and the cells-cellular level?

internal respiration

3

gas exchange between the lung and the blood stream?

external respiration

4

what does Pawo stand for?

pressure at the airway opening

5

what is the normal value for Pawo?

zero or atmospheric pressure (760mmHg or 1034cmH20)

6

What are three additional terms that can be used for Pawo?

-Paw - airway opening pressure
-Pm- mouth pressure
-Proximal airway pressure- mask pressure

7

what does Ppl or stand for?

intrapleural pressure

8

What is the pressure in the potential space between the parietal an visceral pleurae?

intrapleural pressure

9

What is the normal value for Ppl ( intrapleural pressure)?

-5cmH20 at end of expiration
-10cmH20at the end of inspiration

10

What does PA or Palv stand for?

intrapulmonary pressure

11

what is the normal values for intrapulmonary pressure during spontaneous breathing?

during inspiration -1 to -5cmH20
during expiration +1 or +5cmH20

12

what does the diaphragm do on inspiration?

descends and enlarges the thoracic cavity.

13

what does the diaphragm do on exhalation?

is passive and diaphragm returns to normal

14

Name the gas law that governs spontaneous ventilation?

Boyles law

15

What must be present in order to have gas flow?

must have a pressure gradient

16

what are the four basic pressure gradients?

- transairway pressure (PTA)
-transthoracic pressure (Pw or Ptt)
-transpulmonary pressure (PL or Ptp)
- transrespiratory pressure (Ptr)

17

What does PTA stand for?

transairway pressure

18

what does Pw or Ptt stand for?

transthoracic pressure

19

what does PL or Ptp stand for?

transpulmonary pressure

20

what does Ptr stand for?

transrespiratory pressure

21

the pressure difference between the airway opening and and the alveolus is known as?

Pta transairway pressure
Pta=Paw-Palv

22

the pressure difference between the alveolar space or lung and the bodys surface is known as?

Pw-transthoracic pressure
Pw=Palv-Pbs

23

what does Pbs stand for?

bodys surface pressure

24

the pressure difference between the alveolar space and the pleural space is known as?

PL - transpulmonary pressure
PL=Palv-Ppl

25

the pressure difference between the airway opening and the body surface is know as ?

PTR-transrespiratory pressure
Ptr=Pawo-Pbs

26

usually pressure at end expiration before next breath is know as ?

baseline or PEEP

27

normal values for baseline pressure is what?

zero or atmospheric pressure 760mmHg

28

The highest pressure recorded at the end of inspiration ?

Peak pressure or PIP

29

inspiratory pause. NO FLOW . elastic recoil of lung is still exerting a pressure . pressure taken after breath has been delivered but before exhalation is allowed to occur?

plateau pressure-breath hold

30

volume change per unit of pressure change is known as ?

compliance

31

reflects elastic recoil of lung (stiffness) and airway resistance to flow is know as ?

dynamic compliance

32

pressure is measured at static or no-flow conditions. eliminates airway resistance

static compliance

33

obstruction to air flow is know as?

resistance

34

C=Vt/Plateau-EEP is known as what equation?

static compliance

35

what is the normal values for compliance?

0.05 to 0.17 L/cmH20 or 50 to 170 mL/cmH20

36

what is the compliance values in intubated males?

40-50 mL/cmH20, up to 100mL/cmH20

37

what is the compliance values in intubated females?

35-45 mL/cmH20, up to 100mL/cmH20

38

PIP-Plateau/flow is known as what equation?

Raw or airway resistance

39

what is the normal airway resistance values

0.6 to 2.4 cmH20/L/sec

40

what is the airway resistance values for intubated patients?

approximately 6cmH20/L/sec or higher

41

what are a few conditions that would increase airway resistance?

COPD
Mechanical obstruction
infection
Emphysema

42

what are some reasons why it might be difficult to ventilate a patient?

lung stiffness
pneumonia
fibrosis
ARDS

43

for any value for R and C equals the time necessary for lungs to empty is know as what?
R x C

time constants

44

what is the value for one time constant?

63%

45

what is the value to 2 time constant?

86%

46

what is the value for 3 time constant?

95%

47

what is the value for 4 time constant?

98%

48

what is the value for 5 time constant?

100%

49

ventilator is the tank ventilator or "iron lung" individuals head is exposed to ambient pressure and thorax or entire body is encased in a airtight container is know as what?

negative pressure ventilation

50

ventilation occurs when a mechanical ventilator is used to move air into the patients lungs by way of an endotracheal tube is known as what?

positive pressure ventilation

51

ventilation uses above normal ventilating rates with below normal ventilating volumes is known as what?

High frequency ventilation

52

HFPPV stands for what?

High frequency positive pressure ventilation

53

HFJV stands for what?

High frequency Jet Ventilation

54

HFOV stands for what?

High frequency oscillatory ventilation

55

what is the breaths per min in HFPPV?

60-100

56

what is the breaths per min in HFJV?

100-600

57

What is the breaths per min in HFOV?

up to 4000 used for infants and adults with air leaks

58

incomplete expiration causes air trapping (hyperinflation) is known as what?

Auto (intrinsic) PEEP

59

a small amount of applied PEEP (3 to 5 cmH20) is used in most ventilated patients to prevent end-expiratory alveolar collapse is know as what?

Applied (extrinsic) PEEP

60

What does PEEP stand for?

Positive end expiratory pressure