Basics of Neuro Exam Flashcards Preview

Term IV: Neuro > Basics of Neuro Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basics of Neuro Exam Deck (24):
1

What structures of the CNS lie in the posterior fossa?

Brainstem and cerebellum

2

Basal ganglia - CNS or PNS?

CNS

3

Spinal cord - CNS or PNS?

CNS

4

Signs/symptoms on the same side as the involved CNS structure

Ipsilateral

5

Signs/symptoms on the opposite side as the involved CNS structure?

Contralateral

6

Motor or upper motor neurons are called ______ tracts. What two structures do they cross?

Corticospinal tracts

Medullary pyramidal decussation
Foramen magnum

7

What sensory system carries proprioception/fine touch? What structure does it cross?

Dorsal column System

Foramen magnum

8

What sensory system carries pain/thermal sensation? What structure does it cross?

Spinothalamic system

Level of entry in spinal cord

9

What are the three long tracts?

Corticospinal, dorsal column, spinothalamic

10

Disease at a spinal segment - local (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral)

Segmental disease

11

What symptoms result from segmental disease?

Weakness and reflex changes below the level of the lesion due to interruption of descending corticospinal tracts

Loss of sensation below level of lesion due to interruption of ascending dorsal column and spinothalamic tracts

12

Preferentially impacts long tracts, combo of involved tracts can be relatively specific for selected diseases

Selective tract disease

13

Posterior fossa structures reside between the ____ and ____

foramen magnum and tentorium

14

Injury to brainstem:

Cranial nerves - ?
Long tracts - ?
(ipsilateral or contralateral symptoms)

Other injury:

CN's - ipsilateral
LT's - contralateral (b/c they have decussated/crossed)

Disturbances of conjugate gaze and/or pupils, disturbances of balance

15

Injury to cerebellum itself: contralateral or ipsilateral symptoms?

Ipsilateral

16

What are basal ganglia?

Deep nuclei in the upper brainstem and deep cerebral hemispheres

17

Injury to basal ganglia: contralateral or ipsilateral?

What are the prime manifestations?

Contralateral

Movement disorders - Parkinson's, Huntington's

18

What are higher cortical functions?

Language, complex actions, complex sensory interpretation

19

Disturbance of language

Aphasia

20

Inability to execute complex motor tasks

Apraxia

21

Inability to interpret complex sensory info - like recognizing faces

Agnosia

22

What cerebral hemisphere is language dominant? (for most people)

Left

23

Injury to cerebral hemispheres: contralateral or ipsilateral?

Contralateral - b/c long tracts plug into hemispheres

24

Visual pathways run from ____ to ___, so lesions produce very specific visual field findings.

Retina to occipital cortex