Flashcards in Basics of Neuro Exam Deck (24):
What structures of the CNS lie in the posterior fossa?
Brainstem and cerebellum
Basal ganglia - CNS or PNS?
Spinal cord - CNS or PNS?
Signs/symptoms on the same side as the involved CNS structure
Signs/symptoms on the opposite side as the involved CNS structure?
Motor or upper motor neurons are called ______ tracts. What two structures do they cross?
Medullary pyramidal decussation
What sensory system carries proprioception/fine touch? What structure does it cross?
Dorsal column System
What sensory system carries pain/thermal sensation? What structure does it cross?
Level of entry in spinal cord
What are the three long tracts?
Corticospinal, dorsal column, spinothalamic
Disease at a spinal segment - local (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral)
What symptoms result from segmental disease?
Weakness and reflex changes below the level of the lesion due to interruption of descending corticospinal tracts
Loss of sensation below level of lesion due to interruption of ascending dorsal column and spinothalamic tracts
Preferentially impacts long tracts, combo of involved tracts can be relatively specific for selected diseases
Selective tract disease
Posterior fossa structures reside between the ____ and ____
foramen magnum and tentorium
Injury to brainstem:
Cranial nerves - ?
Long tracts - ?
(ipsilateral or contralateral symptoms)
CN's - ipsilateral
LT's - contralateral (b/c they have decussated/crossed)
Disturbances of conjugate gaze and/or pupils, disturbances of balance
Injury to cerebellum itself: contralateral or ipsilateral symptoms?
What are basal ganglia?
Deep nuclei in the upper brainstem and deep cerebral hemispheres
Injury to basal ganglia: contralateral or ipsilateral?
What are the prime manifestations?
Movement disorders - Parkinson's, Huntington's
What are higher cortical functions?
Language, complex actions, complex sensory interpretation
Disturbance of language
Inability to execute complex motor tasks
Inability to interpret complex sensory info - like recognizing faces
What cerebral hemisphere is language dominant? (for most people)
Injury to cerebral hemispheres: contralateral or ipsilateral?
Contralateral - b/c long tracts plug into hemispheres