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Flashcards in Bates Physical Exam Deck (79)
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1

apparent state of health fits in what part of physical exam?

general survey

2

level of consciousness fits in what part of physical exam?

general survey

3

signs of distress fit in what part of physical exam?
ie cardiac or respiratory distress, pain, or anxiety/depression

general survey

4

dress, grooming, and personal hygiene fits in what part of physical exam?

general survey

5

facial expression fits in what part of physical exam?

general survey

6

odors of body and breath fits in what part of physical exam?

general survey

7

height and weight fits in what part of physical exam?

general survey

8

BMI calculation

(Lbs * 700)/inches
OR
Kg/m^2

9

what is masked hypertension

•office BP <140/90 but elevated daytime BP >135/85 on home or ambulatory testing
•if untreated, estimated increased risk (10-30%) of cardiovascular disease and end-organ damage

10

what is nocturnal hypertension and how is it tested for

•a nocturnal fall of <10% of daytime values
•associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes
•requires 24 hour ambulatory BP monitoring to identify

11

what happens if BP cuff is too small

BP will read high

12

what happens if BP cuff is too large

BP will read low on a small arm and high on a large arm

13

what's the proper width of a the inflatable bladder on a BP cuff

about 40% of the upper arm circumference

14

what's the proper length of the inflatable bladder on a BP cuff

about 80% of the upper arm circumference

15

what happens if brachial artery is below heart level during BP measurement

BP will read high

16

what happens if brachial artery is above the heart level during BP measurement

BP will ready low

17

how and why to estimate systolic pressure

•palpate radial artery, rapidly inflate cuff until radial pulse disappears
•we take the number on the manometer and add 30. This is so we can avoid inflating the cuff unnecessarily high and causing discomfort
•also avoid error cause by auscultatory gap

18

what is auscultatory gap and what is it associated with

•silent interval that may be present between systolic and diastolic pressures
•associated with arterial stiffness and atherosclerotic disease

19

korotkoff sounds

•the blood flow sounds heard while taking blood pressure
•they are low in pitch and better heard with the bell

20

When do you find the systolic pressure

this is the level when you hear the sounds of at least 2 consecutive beats

21

When do you find the diastolic pressure

•once the korotkoff sounds become muffled and then disappear
•continue listening another 10-20 mmHg to confirm disappearance point

22

when taking the BP in both arms you find a difference between arms greater than 10-15 mmHg. what conditions may be associated with these findings?

•subclavian steal syndrome
•supravalvular aortic stenosis
•aortic dissection

23

consensual reaction to light

when light is shined into one eye, the opposite pupil will also constrict (the reaction in the first eye is called the direct reaction)

24

what nerves are involved in the pupillary reaction

CN II senses the light
CN III transmits the motor innervation to constrict the pupil

25

the near reaction (eye)

when shifting gaze from a far object to a near one, the pupils constrict

26

visual acuity

•expressed as 2 numbers (i.e 20/20)
•the first is the distance of the patient from the chart
•the second is the distance at which a normal eye can read the line of letters

27

myopia

•nearsightedness
•focusing problems for distance vision

28

presbyopia

•causes focusing problems for near vision
•found in middle-aged and older adults

29

hyperopia

•farsightedness
•focusing problems for near vision

30

normal pupils size range

between 3 and 5 mm