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1

Information technology

different computer related components

2

Information technology components

1. Software
2. Hardware
3. Data
4. Network
5. People

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Business information system (software)

- transaction processing systems
- knowledge systems and office systems
- management information systems
- decision support system
- executive information system

4

Hardware

physical computer or computer peripheral device (mouse or printer etc)

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Software

systems and programs that process data and turn it into information.
Software can be general or very specific (developed internally for a specific company)

6

Network

made up of the communication media that allows multiple computers to share data and information at the same time

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People

have functions of initial set up and maintenance/support after initial setup

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Data

- raw facts
- production data - stored on devices, live or real data
- test or staging data - results from test processing and stored in test system. Fake data for testing purposes

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Information

organized and processed data

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Roles in business operations
A business information system has primary roles:

1. Process detailed data - Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
2. Assist in making daily decisions - Decision Support Systems (DSS)
3. Assist in developing business strategies - Executive Information systems (Long-term business decisions)

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Hierarchy of roles

- lower level and more detailed business info systems serve the needs to the lower levels of the organization
- higher level and less detailed system serves the needs of the higher levels of the organization

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Functional perspective

- sales and marketing systems
- manufacturing and production systems
- finance and accounting systems
- human resources system

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Data capture

the first step in processing business transactions is to capture the data for each transaction that takes place and enter the data into the system

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Business events

the data capture process is usually triggered by the occurrence of a business activity

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Data capture techniques

1. Manual entries - physical input by individuals
2. Source data automation - devices capture transaction data in machine readable form at the time and place of their origin (bar code scanner)

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Data accuracy

1. Well - designed input screens - request all required data and source data automation captures set data automatically
2. Prenumbered forms - ensures that all transactions have been recorded and that none of the documents has been misplaced

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Processing data

once data about a business activity has been collected and entered into the system, the data must be processed

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Functions performed on data

1. Collect
2. Process
3. Store
4. Transform
5. Distribute

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Normal series of events in a business information system

1. The system is considered functional, when it is set up and configured by:
- hardware technicians
- network administrators
- software developers
2. After that an end user inputs data.
3. After the data is collected, stored and processed, the information output can be shared across a network with other end users.

20

Accounting Information Systems (AIS)

- a type of management information system
- it may be partly a transaction processing system and partly a knowledge system
- should have an audit trail for accounting transactions

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Accounting information system

Source document - journal - ledger - trial balance - financial statements reports - file original paper source document

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Objectives of an AIS

- record valid transactions
- properly classify transactions
- record transactions at their proper value
- record in the proper accounting period
- properly present the transactions and related info in the financial statements of the organization

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Sequence of events in an AIS

- data input
- filling the original source document
- the transactions are recorded in the appropriate journal
- the transactions are posted to the general and subsidiary ledgers
- trial balances are prepared
- financial reports are generated

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Transactions cycles of an Accounting Information System

1. Revenue cycle - customer orders, accounts receivable, cash receipts
2. Expenditure cycle - purchasing, inventory control, accounts payable, cash disbursement
3. Production cycle - product design and production planning, product manufacturing, inventory control. Conversion of resources into product and services.
4. Human resources / Payroll cycle - human resources, time and attendance, payroll disbursement, payroll tax reporting
5. Financing cycle - transactions associated with equity and debt financing including issuance of stock or debt, payment of dividends or debt service payments

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Data Processing Cycle
1. Data input

1. Data input
- all transactions of interest are accounted for
- are in affected accounts
- all people originating transactions are identified
2. Input verification
- source documents
- turnaround documents - preprint data in machine readable form
3. Features of desirable data input procedures
- prenumbered source documents allow for verification of all data input
- source documents are efficiently designed to capture all required info
- data input is verified prior to acceptance by the system

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Data Processing cycle
2. Data Storage

Data Storage
1. Methods
a. journals and ledgers
b. coding
- sequence codes
- block codes
- group codes
c. charts of accounts
2. Computer storage
a. Entity
b. Attributes
c. Field
d. Record
e. Data value
f. File
g. Master file
h. Transaction file
i. Database

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Data Processing Cycle
3. Data Processing

A. Functions
1. Data Creation
2. Data Reading
3. Updating
4. Deleting
B. Methods
a. Batch processing
b. Online real time process

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Data Processing Cycle
4. Information Output

1. Form
- Documents
- Reports: internal or external
- Query
2. Topic
- budgets
- production and delivery schedules
- performance reports

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Processing Methodology

1. Batch processing
2. Online real time process

30

Batch processing

- input documents/transactions are collected and grouped (batch) by type of transaction
- batches are processed periodically
- batch processing system may use sequential storage device or random access storage device
- always a time delay