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Information technology

different computer related components


Information technology components

1. Software
2. Hardware
3. Data
4. Network
5. People


Business information system (software)

- transaction processing systems
- knowledge systems and office systems
- management information systems
- decision support system
- executive information system



physical computer or computer peripheral device (mouse or printer etc)



systems and programs that process data and turn it into information.
Software can be general or very specific (developed internally for a specific company)



made up of the communication media that allows multiple computers to share data and information at the same time



have functions of initial set up and maintenance/support after initial setup



- raw facts
- production data - stored on devices, live or real data
- test or staging data - results from test processing and stored in test system. Fake data for testing purposes



organized and processed data


Roles in business operations
A business information system has primary roles:

1. Process detailed data - Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
2. Assist in making daily decisions - Decision Support Systems (DSS)
3. Assist in developing business strategies - Executive Information systems (Long-term business decisions)


Hierarchy of roles

- lower level and more detailed business info systems serve the needs to the lower levels of the organization
- higher level and less detailed system serves the needs of the higher levels of the organization


Functional perspective

- sales and marketing systems
- manufacturing and production systems
- finance and accounting systems
- human resources system


Data capture

the first step in processing business transactions is to capture the data for each transaction that takes place and enter the data into the system


Business events

the data capture process is usually triggered by the occurrence of a business activity


Data capture techniques

1. Manual entries - physical input by individuals
2. Source data automation - devices capture transaction data in machine readable form at the time and place of their origin (bar code scanner)


Data accuracy

1. Well - designed input screens - request all required data and source data automation captures set data automatically
2. Prenumbered forms - ensures that all transactions have been recorded and that none of the documents has been misplaced


Processing data

once data about a business activity has been collected and entered into the system, the data must be processed


Functions performed on data

1. Collect
2. Process
3. Store
4. Transform
5. Distribute


Normal series of events in a business information system

1. The system is considered functional, when it is set up and configured by:
- hardware technicians
- network administrators
- software developers
2. After that an end user inputs data.
3. After the data is collected, stored and processed, the information output can be shared across a network with other end users.


Accounting Information Systems (AIS)

- a type of management information system
- it may be partly a transaction processing system and partly a knowledge system
- should have an audit trail for accounting transactions


Accounting information system

Source document - journal - ledger - trial balance - financial statements reports - file original paper source document


Objectives of an AIS

- record valid transactions
- properly classify transactions
- record transactions at their proper value
- record in the proper accounting period
- properly present the transactions and related info in the financial statements of the organization


Sequence of events in an AIS

- data input
- filling the original source document
- the transactions are recorded in the appropriate journal
- the transactions are posted to the general and subsidiary ledgers
- trial balances are prepared
- financial reports are generated


Transactions cycles of an Accounting Information System

1. Revenue cycle - customer orders, accounts receivable, cash receipts
2. Expenditure cycle - purchasing, inventory control, accounts payable, cash disbursement
3. Production cycle - product design and production planning, product manufacturing, inventory control. Conversion of resources into product and services.
4. Human resources / Payroll cycle - human resources, time and attendance, payroll disbursement, payroll tax reporting
5. Financing cycle - transactions associated with equity and debt financing including issuance of stock or debt, payment of dividends or debt service payments


Data Processing Cycle
1. Data input

1. Data input
- all transactions of interest are accounted for
- are in affected accounts
- all people originating transactions are identified
2. Input verification
- source documents
- turnaround documents - preprint data in machine readable form
3. Features of desirable data input procedures
- prenumbered source documents allow for verification of all data input
- source documents are efficiently designed to capture all required info
- data input is verified prior to acceptance by the system


Data Processing cycle
2. Data Storage

Data Storage
1. Methods
a. journals and ledgers
b. coding
- sequence codes
- block codes
- group codes
c. charts of accounts
2. Computer storage
a. Entity
b. Attributes
c. Field
d. Record
e. Data value
f. File
g. Master file
h. Transaction file
i. Database


Data Processing Cycle
3. Data Processing

A. Functions
1. Data Creation
2. Data Reading
3. Updating
4. Deleting
B. Methods
a. Batch processing
b. Online real time process


Data Processing Cycle
4. Information Output

1. Form
- Documents
- Reports: internal or external
- Query
2. Topic
- budgets
- production and delivery schedules
- performance reports


Processing Methodology

1. Batch processing
2. Online real time process


Batch processing

- input documents/transactions are collected and grouped (batch) by type of transaction
- batches are processed periodically
- batch processing system may use sequential storage device or random access storage device
- always a time delay