Flashcards in Beer Deck (37):
What is Wort
sugar rich liquid from malted grain
What is the two step brewing process for Beer?
Derive the Wort, Ferment the Wort
a flower that adds flavor and bitterness, and has both preservative and antiseptic qualities that prohibit bacterial growth
What is Bavarian Purity Law (Reinheitsgebot)? About when was it first detailed?
early as 1516, three ingredients authorized for beer production as barley, hops, and water—the action of yeast in fermentation was as of yet undiscovered (NOTE:wheat, a component of Hefe Weizen and White Beer styles, was reserved for the production of bread)
How do you create Malt?
Steep Barley for roughly 2 days in water to promote germination of the grain, after sprouting the "green malt" is roasted in hot air kiln to stop any growth (different styles=different degree and length of roasting)
What is the enzyme used by the Sprouted barley to covert carbohydrates to fermentable sugars?
What is the process to go from malted barley to wort?
Once the grain is malted, the malt is ground, or cracked, in a mill to produce grist. The grist is combined with hot water in a mash tun. The mashing process lasts one to two hours, converting and extracting sugar from the malt, and results in the flavor-, sugar- and color-rich wort.
ground or cracked malted grain
After creating the wort, what happens next?
the wort liquid is drawn off the grains and filtered into the brew kettle, or “copper.” Additional sugar and flavor may be extracted from the spent grains by sparging—rinsing with fresh water—although this may lead to unwanted bitterness in the finished brew. The sparge is combined with the wort in the copper, and hops are added. The wort is then brought to a sustained, roiling boil for at least one hour. Boiling the wort stabilizes and sterilizes the brew, darkens the color, and causes excess water to evaporate.
What is sparging?
when hot water is run through the grain to produce wort
Ales vs Lagers?
Top Fermenting Yeasts for Ales, Bottom fermenting yeasts for Lager
What is the technical name for Top Fermenting Yeasts?
What is the technical name for Bottom Fermenting Yeasts?
Saccharomyces pastorianus, formerly called Saccharomyces carlsbergensis
Temperature/Length of brew for Ales?
Top fermenting yeasts prefer warmer temperatures, quick 1 week fermentation, spice and fruity richer beers
Temperature Length of brew for Lagers?
fermentes slower and at lower temperatures, clumps at bottom of tank, then transfered to tanks or casks for conditionioning
are spontaneously fermented in open-top containers with native wild yeasts, such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus. and typically aged in cask
(aka Brussels Champagne) is a style produced by mixing one-year-old lambics with beers that have aged for two to three years, referments in the bottle due to sugar from lambic, creating effervescence
Kriek Style Lambic?
Fruit lambics are refermented with added fruits- in this case, morello cherries
Framboise Style Lambic?
Fruit lambics are refermented with added fruits- in this case, Raspberries
Name two fruit lambic producers/
Cantillon and Lindmans
10-15 Ibu 4.5 - 5.5% Cloudy straw to pale amber clove, banana, bubble gum
10-15ibu 4.5 - 5.5% Cloudy, pale, to medium Amber similar to hefe but more Caramel
18-29ibu 7 - 9.5% Amber same as dunkle, but more rich in malt
Dusseldorf Alt (Ale)
25-48 4 - 5% Cooper amber to brown toffee malt, herbal hop smell, fruitiness
18-25 4.5 - 5.5% Pale to medium crisp and clean with medium hoppyness , fruitiness
Bitter English Ale
25-55 2.5 3.5% Light Yellow, copper nutty, little fruit from the yeast dose of English hops
Ales: fermentation is fast and warm, producing richly-flavored beers
Lager: fermentation is slow and cool, producing delicately flavored beers
Bock (including Doppelbock, Eisbock, Maibock)
Lambics: spontaneously fermented (with Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Brettanomyces lambicus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus, and others) over a long period of time; aged hops provide antibacterial qualities, not bitterness
Gueuze: blend of one year-old and two year-old lambics, fermentation concludes in the bottle
Mars: A mild lambic produced by reusing the malt from a previous lambic fermentation
Faro: A mixture of lambic and a lighter brewed beer, Belgian candy sugar is added for sweetness
Kriek, Framboise and other fruit lambics
Wheat Beers: produced with up to 60% wheat instead of barley (German law requires at least 50%), wheat beers are typically cloudy and unfiltered
Hefe Weizen: literally, "yeast-wheat"
Dunkel / Dark Weizen
Kristall Weizen: filtered, crystal clear wheat beer
White Beer: often includes additions of orange peel and/or coriander
Trappist Beers: produced in various styles (strengths): patersbier, enkel, dubbel, tripel, quadrupel
Orval (Belgian, est. 1931)
Chimay (Belgian, est. 1863)
Westvleteren (St.-Sixtus, Belgian, est. 1838)
Rochefort (Belgian, est. 1595)
Westmalle (Belgian, est. 1836)
Achel (Belgian, est. 1998)
Koningshoeven (La Trappe, Netherlands, est. 1884)
Stift Engelszell (Austria, est. 1293, beer production began in 1925, then stopped in 1929. Production began again in 2012)
Mariawald (German, ceased production in 1956)
St.-Joseph's Abbey (Spencer, Massachusetts, certified for production in 2013)
Abdij Maria Toevlucht (Zundert, Netherlands, certified for production in 2013)
Mont des Cats (France, est. 1826, beer production began 1848, commercialized in 1896, halted production in 1905. Production began again in 2011, but is now made at Scourmont Abbey/Chimay in Belgium)
Tre Fontane (Abbazia delle Tre Fontane, Rome, Italy, certified for production in 2015)
Biere de Garde
Flemish and Northern French bottle-conditioned beer
Lager fermented at warmer than normal temperatures (i.e. Anchor Steam)
Ale from Cologne (Germany) fermented at cooler than normal temperatures
Rye-based Russian beer usually fermented with fruit juices
Smoked beer, famously produced in Bamberg (Franken, Germany)