Flashcards in Big and Research Questions Deck (40):
The strength of an argument altered by how believable the conclusion is, e.g.:
All professors are mortal
All sadists are mortal
Therefore, all professors are sadists
Tendency to search for/remember information that confirms your preconceptions
Tendency for experimenters to believe, certify, and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict
When it is assumed that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one.
Tendency to overestimate the probability of events that are more available in memory (e.g., recent, unusual, emotionally charged)
◦ Lottery winning
The mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently than normal during some period, it will happen less frequently in the future, or that, if something happens less frequently than normal during some period it will happen more
A cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others' introspections as unreliable.
Data driven research
Reasoning from the data to the general theory
Theory driven research
Reasoning from general theory to the data
Good theory criteria:
• Precision and testability
• Heuristic value
Broad enough to account for as much data as possible
•If there are data relevant to a theory that it cannot account for:
• Either adapt the theory to account for the new data
• Develop a new theory that incorporates the new data
•Example: Can the auditory theory account for perceptual phenomena, such as categorical perception, phonemic restoration?
Precision and Testability
A good theory should have concepts that are clearly and explicitly defined:
• Contains rational, logically related statements
• Empirically testable hypotheses
•Some ESP believers argue that the presence of a disbeliever can prevent someone with ESP from being able to perform.
•We aim to disprove theories (not prove them)
So powerful, general, or flexible that they can account for everything
• Not testable/falsifiable
Occam’s razor: The explanation of any phenomena should make as few assumptions as possible.
àAll things being equal, the simplest explanation tends to be the best
Makes (basic or applied) predictions, generates new knowledge, stimulates future research
Gather new information through observation/measurements
use existing information
Numerical data or data to which statistics can be applied
Quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, etc.
Generalize results from a sample to a population
Methods include surveys, structured interviews/observations, systematic experiments
Primarily exploratory: Aim to reveal underlying reasons,
opinions, motives, trends
Often used to generate hypotheses to be tested in
subsequent quantitative research
Methods include unstructured/semi-structured
techniques, verbal measures
Sample size is typically small
how accurately a test or measure represents the knowledge, skill, or
trait you set out to assess
the extent to which the measure yields consistent or repeatable results
Concept of Validity vs Reliability
a measure can be
reliable even if it is not valid, but a measure cannot be valid if it is not reliable
validity based on a person's judgment of how well a test appears to
accomplish its purpose (customers)
How valid is a test judged by experts in the field?
Compare results with an old test to see if the test measures are similar
administer the new test to a group of
participants and determine how they perform on a criterion measure in the future (grad school performance, reading achievement)
patterns or relationships among test
items, or relationships between test items and external standards of comparison
When a person performs in a similar way on test items
A person could have very good cognitive abilities and relatively poorer motor skills, and, thus, scores from items that tap cognitive abilities could be quite different from scores on items that tap motor skills.
the procedure is one that yields
consistent results when two different examiners or observers use the procedure to test the same
The researchers or test developers construct two different, but hopefully equivalent, forms of a measure
split half reliability
Following test administration, you split the test items into two equivalent forms and then compare the participants' scores for each form. One common way to divide a test into equivalent halves is to split it into odd-numbered and evennumbered
process of defining the variables in a study
Strategy for maintaining researcher's objectivity (REJECT, not disprove)
(directional or non directional) what the researchers expect to find.
Evidence basked practice (EBP)
an approach in which clinicians use the
best available scientific evidence to guide their decisions about how to evaluate and treat persons with communication disorders
Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome
often used with EBP
Experimental research that lacks random assignment to groups is sometimes referred to as...
Examples of nonexperimental research
case studies, surveys, studies of relationships or correlations between measures, as well as comparison or