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Flashcards in bio Deck (44):
1

what does the nucleus do

controls the cells activity

2

what does the cell membrane do

controls what comes in and out of the cell

3

what does the cytoplasm do

a substance which chemical reactions take place

4

what does the cell wall do

supports the cell

5

what does the vacuole do

stores water and chemicals, supports the cell

6

what does the chloroplast do

required for photosynthesis

7

what is yeast

yeast is a single celled fungus

8

what can we use yeast for

for brewing ad baking

9

what 3 structures do a animal cell have

cell membrane
nucleus
cytoplasm

10

what 3 structures do a plant cell have but an animal cell doesn’t

chloroplast
cell wall
vacuole

11

what is an antibiotic

an antibiotic is a chemical that stops the growth of a microorganism

12

what can you make using yeast

bread
beer/alcohol

13

what are cells

building blocks of life

14

how do you make yogurt

you add bacterix go milk

15

3 reasons why the milk is heated up in the yogurt making process

to remove air
to change the milks proteins
to kill bacteria

16

what is the difference between biological and non-biological detergents

biological detergents contain enzymes and non-biological don’t

17

what are the advantages and disadvantages or biological detergents.

advantages disadvantages

.clean better. .allergic reactions
.low temperature .high cost of product
.save energy and money. .enzymes may digest natural fibres such e. as wool and silk

18

what is an antibiotic

an antibiotic is a chemical that prevents the growth of an micr organism

19

what are antibiotics used for

to fight bacterial infections.
each antibiotic is affective against different types of bacteria

20

who discovered penicillin.

Alexander Fleming

21

what is penicillin

penicillin is a natural chemical produced by fungus which is toxic to some bacteria but not toxic to humans

22

bacteria which are sensitive to an antibiotic are

killed by the presence of that antibiotic and will show no growth near that antibiotic.

23

bacteria which are resistant to an antibiotic are

not affected by the presence of that antibiotic and will still grow near that antibiotic.

24

how to anti-fungus creams work

They work by killing fungal cells and preventing further growth.

25

how does anti bacterial cleaners work

They remove dirt and kill bacteria.
They can also prevent bacteria from growing on the surface for some time after use.

26

how are new cells produced and what is the process called

by cell devision
mitosis
Mitosis is when the cell divides to form 2 identical daughter cells.

27

what are chromosomes

Chromosomes in the nucleus carry the genetic information of a cell.

28

Mitosis makes new cells for

growth and repare

29

bacteria need good conditions to grow. what are these conditions

temperature
pH
source of nutrients/energy

30

what is the function of DNA

to pass on inherited characteristics from parents to offspring

31

where is the DNA information stored and how many of them are there

chromosomes
46

32

what are chromosomes made up of

genes
which give you particular characteristics
Chromosomes are made of tightly coiled DNA.

33

what does DNA give instructions to

proteins
Proteins are used for cell parts, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, etc.

34

what is DNA profiling

DNA profiling is a technique used by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals using their DNA.

35

what can DNA profiling be used for

•in forensics (to identify criminals)
•in paternity testing (test to find out the father of a child)
•in archaeology
•to assess future health risks

36

what can you got DNA cells from

skin cells
blood
hair root
saliva
Seminal Fluid

37

do identical twins have the same DNA

yes

38

what is forensics
advantages
disadvantages

identifying a dead body or DNA samples found at a crime scene.
Can identify a dead body.Can identify suspects at a crime scene. Can reduce wrongful convictions.
On it’s own it’s inconclusive – DNA evidence could be planted at a crime scene or been there prior to criminal activity. Samples are easily contaminated.

39

what is Paternity testing
advantages
disadvantages

identifying the biological father.
Identify the biological father. Can be used in child support cases.
Expensive. Identify the biological father (could cause problems).

40

what is Archaeology
advantages
disadvantages

identifying human remains.
Could identify the ethnicity of the individual. Could identify if remains found together were related.
Difficult to get a suitable sample, i.e. tissue/cells to analyse.

41

what is Assessing future health risks
advantages
disadvantages

identifying potential for developing different genetically inherited illnesses.
Able to alter lifestyle accordingly. Seek correct medical treatment sooner. Understand impact on potential offspring.
Information could be shared – violation of privacy. Information could be used by companies to deny a product e.g. bank loan, health insurance.

42

what is Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants make high energy foods (sugar and starch).

43

photosynthesis equation

light
carbon dioxide + water ————oxygen + sugar
chlorophyll

44

what are the limiting factors for photosynthesis

Light intensity
Carbon dioxide concentration
Temperature
If the light intensity or the carbon dioxide concentration increases, the rate of photosynthesis also increases and the opposite is true is these conditions decrease. If any of these factors are limiting, the rate of photosynthesis slows down.