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Flashcards in Bio camp inv Deck (31):
1

Define Biodiversity hotspots

The richest an most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life on earth

2

What are the three levels of biodiversity?

Ecosystem
Species
Genetic

3

What are 6 human activities that have led to a decline in our native fauna?

Deforestation
Introduced diseases
Introduced species
Hunting
Burning fossil fuels
Urbanisation

4

What is the impact and biological consequence of urbanisation on our wildlife?

Loss of habitats:
- Shelter and protecting
- Food
- Nesting

replacement of specialist with generalist species, thus leading to biotic homogenisation

5

What is the impact and biological consequence of Deforestation on our wildlife?

Loss of habitats:
- Shelter and protecting
- Food
- Nesting

by separating contiguous areas of rainforest from each other, by interfering with plant reproduction, and by exposing organisms of deep forest to “edge” effects

6

What is the impact and biological consequence of Introduced species/disease on our wildlife?

Increase in competition

These new pressures have also caused a major impact on our country's soil and waterways and on its native plants and animals.

Feral animals impact on native species by predation, competition for food and shelter, destroying habitat, and by spreading diseases.

7

What is the impact and biological consequence of Hunting on our wildlife?

Reduction in species population but increase in the population of lower tier species if the animals hunted are the top predators.

8

What is the impact and biological consequence of Burning of fossil fuels on our wildlife?

Excess of CO2 in the air kills plants especially, which ultimately will begin to kill of the animals as if there are less plants there will less food the animals

fossil fuel extraction results in noise disturbance, pollution of surrounding air, water, and lands, and destruction of forests and other landscapes that make them unfit for sustaining wildlife populations

This leads to warming of the oceans, which has drastic impacts on marine life. Higher temperatures cause oceanic acidification that result in coral bleaching

9

What is a conservation program aimed at maintaining biodiversity of fauna in WA?

Western Shield

10

List three steps involved in the conservation program.

Breeding and reintroducing native animals

Eradication of feral animals
- poison baiting
- 1080, poison pea (Eradicat) which is dropped by aircrafts

Educating the community

11

What are three types of traps used for monitoring animal species?

Sheffield

Elliot

Pitfall

12

What types of animals does the sheffield trap catch?

possums
Quenda
Numbat
Quoll
phascogale

13

What types of animals does the elliot trap catch?

Mardot
pygmy possum
small animals
rats

14

What are two other non-trapping methods?

sticky wickets

sand pads

15

What are the 5 criteria used for the study of populations?

ID tag
New/Recapture
Weight
Head L/W
Pouch LT

16

What are ID tags for?

To see if there are new animals bred in the area

17

Why are animals weighed and head (L/W) measured?

to see their health, age and growth (if recaptured)

18

What is found in the upper story of the Jarrah forest?

Kookaburra
Red-tailed cookatoo
Tawny frog mouth

19

What is found in the middle story of the Jarrah forest?

Possums
Parrots

20

What is found in the under story of the Jarrah forest?

Numbats
Termites
Quoll
Fungi
Reptiles

21

What is the dominant soil type in this area?

Sand
Loam
Clay

22

What is the climate of SW of WA experience?

has a Mediterranean climate, with dry summers and wet winters. Mean maximum daily temperatures range from 16 °C (60.8 °F) in July to 34 °C (93.2 °F) in February.

23

What is the annual average rainfall here in The jarrah forest of mundaring?

Annual rainfall (1,300 millimetres) on the scarp than inland or to the north-east (700 millimetres)

24

Why are woylies important to the ecosystem?

They can store food items in their cheek pouches for later caching or eating.
As a result, Woylies contribute significant ‘ecological services’ to areas they inhabit, as they disperse plant seeds and fungal spores.

Their diggings also increase water infiltration to the soil, and allow seeds and organic matter to be trapped, facilitating plant recruitment.

25

What are some special adaptations of echidnas?

They have a mammary duct, where milk oozes out and the puggle licks it up

They roll up into a ball as defence

Echidnas are monotremes, or mammals that lay eggs

26

What are some adaptation of the prickly moses?

They fix nitrogen in the soil, which acts like fertiliser

produce a lot of seeds, and release alot of these seeds if a fire occurs

The hotter the fire, the more prickly moses you will see

27

What are some adaptation of the Hakea?

They are honey bearers, which feeds pygmy possums

They have a woody seedpod, which protects the seed in response to heat (fires)

28

What are some adaptation of the Snotty gobble?

Produces edible fruit that is full of vitamin C

They have thick bark for protection against heat

They have shallow roots, that have a fine network of roots that gather slight moisture in the dry, arid conditions

29

What are some adaptation of the yellow Buttercups?

Their underside is much lighter green with fine thin hairs compared to the top. Which helps it survive closer to the ground during hot summers, as light reflects up from the ground to the underside of the leaf, the lighter colour helps it to reflect back to the atmosphere.

As it closer to the ground it accumulates alot of leaf litter

30

What are some adaptation of the Wattle?

Browns off as it becomes metabolically inactive, until it rains it goes back to green

31

What are some adaptation of the Jarrah?

The lignotuber is a large swelling underground. This swelling can store carbohydrates, and can make it possible for a young jarrah to grow back after a fire.

Another adaptation the jarrah tree has made is its long roots. This makes it possible to pull up underground water during a drought. This drought resistance is helpful in its natural dry habitat.