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Flashcards in Bio Evolution Deck (36):
1

evolution

process of changed that has transformed life on earth

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fossils

remains of organisms from the past

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strata

layers of rock

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paleontology

study of fossils

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use and disuse

parts that are used extensively become larger and stronger. Not used, it will deteriorate

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Inheritance of acquired characteristics

organism could pass these modifications to its offspring

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What were the two incorrect principles from Jean Baptiste de Lamarck?

use and disuse, inheritance of acquired characteristics

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Charles Darwin

surgeon who thought surgery without anesthesia was horrifying

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1831 voyage of the beagle

survey African coast. noticed plants and their environments

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natural selection

individuals with certain traits have more offspring than individuals with other traits

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adaptions

characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments

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artificial selection

humans can control and modify other species by breeding individuals that possess desired traits

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Fossils show?

evolutionary changes that occurred over time

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homology

study of things that are the same

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homologous structures

common ancestry

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diet changing

don't need parts of your body

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convergent evolution

independent evolution of similar features in different lineages

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biogeography

geographic distribution of species

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continental drift

slow movements of continents over time

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microevolution

evolution on its smallest scale

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3 parts of microevolution

1. natural selection
2. genetic drift
3. gene flow

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alleles

dominant and recessive traits

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genetic variation

1. genotypes- traits
2. phenotypes- physical traits

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geographic variation

differences in genetic composition of separate populations

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mutation

change in nucleotide sequence of an organisms DNA

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genetic drift

fluctuation of allele frequencies in a population

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founder effect

ind. becomes isolated and establish new population. Gene pool differs

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gene flow

transfer of alleles in or out of a population

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relative fitness

how each ind. contributes to a gene pool

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sexual selection

ind. with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to obtain mates

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intrasexual selection

compete directly for opposite sex

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intersexual selection

ind. are choosey in selecting a mate from the other sex

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diploid

2 alleles for every trait

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balancing selection

tends to maintain two or more forms in a population

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neutral selection

no selective advantage or disadvantage

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bottleneck effect

a severe drop in a population size