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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (41)
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1

Vitamin A

aka retinol
antioxidant
epithelial cell differentiation
tx for acne and acute promyelocytic leukemia

2

Vit A deficiency

night blindness
scaly skin
keratin spots on eyes
immunosuppression

3

Vit. A Excess

teratogenic
dry skin/alopecia
liver toxicity
vertigo/blurred vision (acute)

4

Vitamin B1

aka thiamine
cofactor for dehydrogenase enzymes: TCA cycle, glycolysis, and HMT shunt

5

Vit. B1 Deficiency

impaired glucose breakdown and ATP depletion
- Wet & Dry Beri Beri
- Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (confusion + ophthalmoplegia + ataxia)

6

Vitamin B2

aka riboflavin
component of FAD and FMN, cofactors for redox reactions (TCA Cycle)

7

Vit. B2 Deficiency

Cheilosis,
corneal vascularization

8

Vitamin B3

aka niacin
component of NAD+ and NADP+
derived from tryptophan
requires B2 and B6 for synthesis

9

Vit B3 deficiency

Glossitis
Pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia)

10

Vitamin B5

aka pantothenic acid
component of coenzyme A
CoA important for acyl transfers and FA synthesis

11

Vit. B5 deficiency

dermatitis, enteritis, adrenal insufficiency

12

Vitamin B6

aka pyridoxine
converted to PLP, which is an important cofactor
aids in synthesis of: niacin, heme, histamine, and NTs

13

Vit. B6 deficiency

convulsions, neuropathy
sideroblastic anemia

14

Vitamin B7

aka biotin
cofactor for carboxylation enzymes:
- pyruvate -> oxaloacetate
- acetyl CoA -> malonyl CoA
- propionyl coA -> methylmalonyl CoA

15

Vit. B7 Deficiency

rare
dermatitis, alopecia

16

Vitamin B9

aka folate
important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA

17

Vit B9 deficiency

anemia
hypersegmented PMNs
glossitis
no neurologic symptoms

18

Vitamin B12

aka cobalamin
cofactor for methionine synthase
important for DNA synthesis

19

Vit B12 Deficiency

anemia
hypersegmented PMNs
neurologic symptoms (degeneration and paresthesias) due to ABNORMAL MYELIN

20

Vitamin C

aka ascorbic acid
antioxidant
facilitates iron absorption by reducing it to fe2+
important for collagen synthesis
helps convert dopamine to NE

21

Vit C Deficiency

scurvy - swollen gums, petechiae, poor wound healing
weakened immune response

22

Vit. C Excess

calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis
n/v

23

Vitamin D

aids in absorption of calcium and phosphate
increased bone mineralization
increases bone resorption

24

Vit. D deficiency

rickets
osteomalacia

25

Vit. D Excess

hypercalcemia/uria
occurs in granulomatous diseases

26

Vitamin E

aka tocopherol, tocotroenol
antioxidant for rbcs and membranes

27

Vit. E deficiency

hemolytic anemia
acanthocytosis
demyelination

28

Vitamin K

aka phytomenadione, phylloquinone, phytonadione, menaquinone
cofactor, maturation of clotting factors:
- ii, vii, ix, x
- proteins c and s

29

Vit. K deficiency

neonatal hemorrhage (requires gut microbiome to synthesis vit. K)

30

Zinc

essential mineral for activity of enzymes
formation of transcription factor