Biochemistry L01 Foundations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biochemistry L01 Foundations Deck (18):

What are the main types of chemical bonding?

- Covalent
- Non-Covalent:
- Ionic
- Hydrogen
- Van der Waals attractions
- Hydrophobic Interactions, i.e. protein


What are macromolecules?

Polymers (chains) of single units (monomers) linked by covalent bonds


What are the four main molecule types in living things (list both monomers and the polymers they form)?

Monomers - Polymers:
Sugars (monosaccharides) - Polysaccharides
Fatty Acids - Fats, Lipids, Membranes
Amino Acids - Protein
Nucleotides - Nucleic Acids


How many cells do we have and how big are they?

Humans have around 10^14 cells with varying sizes. Most cells in an organism have a diameter less than 30μm. White blood cells =±3μm long and nerve cells up to 1m.


Why does the number of cells in an organism increase as the organism gets larger, but not the size of individual cells?

In order to allow adequate exchange of nutrients, ions, waste, gases etc, the cell needs to maintain a reasonable surface area in comparison to its volume. As the volume increases, the ratio of the surface area to volume decreases. The surface area will eventually not allow for the adequate exchange of nutrients, ions, waste or gases for the size of the cell and the cell will die. Therefore the cell needs to be small enough that the ratio of surface area to cell volume is adequate.


What are the defining features of Prokaryotes?

- No nucleus
- No membrane bound organelles
- cell division by fission (not mitosis) – rapid
growth and reproduction
- Size range: 1-10μm


What are the defining features of Eukaryotes?

- Nucleus and nucleolus
- Membrane-bound organelles
- Cell division by mitosis or meiosis
- Bigger than prokaryotes
- Many are multicellular (i.e. animals and plants)


What is a Hydroxyl group?



What is a Carboxyl group?



What is a Ketone?

Oxygen double bonded to a carbon with two R groups.


What is an Aldehyde?

Oxygen double bonded to a carbon with only one R group and one H.


What is a Methyl group?



What is an Amino group?



What is a Sulfhydryl group?



What is a disulfide group?



What is a phosphate group?

Phosphate surrounded by 4 oxygens. One bond is a double bond.


Define Life

Life is what distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter. These are the 7 characteristics of life:
M - movement
R - respiration
S - sensitivity
G - growth
R - reproduction
E - excretion
N - nutrition


Why is carbon used so much in biological molecules?

Carbon is able to attach between 2-4 atoms to itself, in a variety of shapes and patterns - it has a huge number of bonding patterns available to it
It also forms very stable, and so long-lasting bonds, making molecules of life very tenacious