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Flashcards in Biodiversity Deck (35):
1

What is the definition of biodiversity

Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire earth.

2

What are different forms of biodiversity

1. Species diversity- Number of different species
2. Ecosystem diversity- Level of independence within species.
3.Genetic diversity- the variations within species.

3

What are some different biomes

-Tropical rainforest
-Tropical savanna
-Desert
-Grassland
-temperate deciduous forest
-Temperate coniferous forest
-Mediterranean
-Tundra

4

What is an endemic species

A species only found in a specific area. You would not find it anywhere else on the globe.

5

What do high levels of vegetation cause

High levels of vegetation cause more diversity, hence why the rainforest has more diversity than tundra.

6

What are the idealistic conditions for vegetation to grow

-Warmth
-Rainfall
-Sunlight

7

What do high levels of vegetation cause

Higher levels of biodiversity and endemic species.

8

Why does tundra have few endemic species (if any)

Species migrate because of a shorter growing season therefore they are no longer endemic to that area.

9

How many years has the Australian rainforest been developing for

130 million

10

What influences biodiversity

-Climate
-Topography
-Endemism
-Human activity

11

How many types of desert are there

2
Hot-Sahara
Cold-Greenland

12

What affects the production of biomes

How much plant they produce/speed of vegetation growth

13

What is NPP

Net primary production- The rate at which organic matter is produced (g/m^2/yr)

14

Which areas have a high NPP and which have a low NPP

Rainforest - 2200 g/m^2/yr
Desert- 90 g/m^2/yr

15

Causes of extinction

-overexploitation
-invasive species

16

Why has the rainforest in west africa been cleared as well as central south africa

Clearance for cash crops such as cocoa and tea

17

What %age of forest does a place need to have gone for it to be a biodiversity hotspot

70%

18

What forest is largely remaining

Boreal forest (conifers)

19

Where is the amazon being cut down from and why

The perimeter as its accessible

20

what type of forest is decreasing

Rainforest

21

What area is particularly exploited (general)

seas- ban on whale hunting for example

22

What event can cause overexploitation

Wars such as Rwandan conflict putting the mountain gorilla at risk and causing them to migrate

23

What is an example of an invasive species

The cane toad was an invasive species introduced to Australia to kill off bugs on sugar cane. However they have a poisonous glad on the back of their head with kills native species when they eat them. Australia cannot get rid of them now as they have reproduced.

24

What are the 3 cycles that affect ecosystem processes

-Water cycle
-Nutrient cycle
-Atmospheric cycle (won't affect ecosystem processes directly)

25

How are nutrients made on the ground and why is it quick

Decaying plants and animals provide nutrients, they decay quickly due to the hot, humid climate

26

Which area out of biomass, litter and soil holds the most nutrients in the rainforest

Biomass

27

What is the soil like in the rainforest and how does this affect the roots of trees

The soil is poor and infertile, therefore the roots spread over the surface in order to absorb nutrients.

28

What is the soil like in the desert, how does this affect roots of vegetation

It is fertile because there is little rainfall to wash nutrients away, so roots can grow downwards towards water and nutrients.

29

How is the rainforests floor protected and why is this important for the vegetation

It is protected by the canopy which prevents the nutrients on the surface being washed away or leaching.

30

How can deforestation affect the water cycle

Trees cause transpiration, evaporation and allow for water to slowly infiltrate therefore ground water flow will increase alongside throughflow. Without this there would be increased surface runoff, poor fertility (use gersmehl's nutrient cycles).

31

When the rainforest is used for agriculture after 3 cycles how much phosphorous declines

44%

32

How can deforestation cause precipitation

Trees cause evapotranspiration which leads to precipitation, if this is not happening there could be more extreme weather events such as flooding in other areas.

33

What have the plants in the tundra adapted to

Extreme cold and lack of moisture
-low lying, small leaves to limit transpiration, short roots to prevent permafrost. Short life cycle adapted to growing season

34

What is organic productivity

A measure of how quickly vegetation grows

35

What is permafrost

A permanently frozen subsurface which is impermeable