Flashcards in Biodiversity Deck (35):
What is the definition of biodiversity
Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire earth.
What are different forms of biodiversity
1. Species diversity- Number of different species
2. Ecosystem diversity- Level of independence within species.
3.Genetic diversity- the variations within species.
What are some different biomes
-temperate deciduous forest
-Temperate coniferous forest
What is an endemic species
A species only found in a specific area. You would not find it anywhere else on the globe.
What do high levels of vegetation cause
High levels of vegetation cause more diversity, hence why the rainforest has more diversity than tundra.
What are the idealistic conditions for vegetation to grow
What do high levels of vegetation cause
Higher levels of biodiversity and endemic species.
Why does tundra have few endemic species (if any)
Species migrate because of a shorter growing season therefore they are no longer endemic to that area.
How many years has the Australian rainforest been developing for
What influences biodiversity
How many types of desert are there
What affects the production of biomes
How much plant they produce/speed of vegetation growth
What is NPP
Net primary production- The rate at which organic matter is produced (g/m^2/yr)
Which areas have a high NPP and which have a low NPP
Rainforest - 2200 g/m^2/yr
Desert- 90 g/m^2/yr
Causes of extinction
Why has the rainforest in west africa been cleared as well as central south africa
Clearance for cash crops such as cocoa and tea
What %age of forest does a place need to have gone for it to be a biodiversity hotspot
What forest is largely remaining
Boreal forest (conifers)
Where is the amazon being cut down from and why
The perimeter as its accessible
what type of forest is decreasing
What area is particularly exploited (general)
seas- ban on whale hunting for example
What event can cause overexploitation
Wars such as Rwandan conflict putting the mountain gorilla at risk and causing them to migrate
What is an example of an invasive species
The cane toad was an invasive species introduced to Australia to kill off bugs on sugar cane. However they have a poisonous glad on the back of their head with kills native species when they eat them. Australia cannot get rid of them now as they have reproduced.
What are the 3 cycles that affect ecosystem processes
-Atmospheric cycle (won't affect ecosystem processes directly)
How are nutrients made on the ground and why is it quick
Decaying plants and animals provide nutrients, they decay quickly due to the hot, humid climate
Which area out of biomass, litter and soil holds the most nutrients in the rainforest
What is the soil like in the rainforest and how does this affect the roots of trees
The soil is poor and infertile, therefore the roots spread over the surface in order to absorb nutrients.
What is the soil like in the desert, how does this affect roots of vegetation
It is fertile because there is little rainfall to wash nutrients away, so roots can grow downwards towards water and nutrients.
How is the rainforests floor protected and why is this important for the vegetation
It is protected by the canopy which prevents the nutrients on the surface being washed away or leaching.
How can deforestation affect the water cycle
Trees cause transpiration, evaporation and allow for water to slowly infiltrate therefore ground water flow will increase alongside throughflow. Without this there would be increased surface runoff, poor fertility (use gersmehl's nutrient cycles).
When the rainforest is used for agriculture after 3 cycles how much phosphorous declines
How can deforestation cause precipitation
Trees cause evapotranspiration which leads to precipitation, if this is not happening there could be more extreme weather events such as flooding in other areas.
What have the plants in the tundra adapted to
Extreme cold and lack of moisture
-low lying, small leaves to limit transpiration, short roots to prevent permafrost. Short life cycle adapted to growing season
What is organic productivity
A measure of how quickly vegetation grows