Bioethics Flashcards Preview

PHL 240 Healthcare Ethics > Bioethics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bioethics Deck (85):
1

Universality

If One person is wrong for an action, everyone else should be too.

2

If one person is wrong for an action, everyone else should be as well.

Universality

3

When a person makes someone's point appear extreme or distorted.

Ex. "Immunization will only kill 1 child out of 5000."
"So you think the life of a child isn't worth anything?!"

Straw man fallacy

4

Deontology

The rightness of actions is determined partly to entirely by their intrinsic value. (Kant)p-she.

5

The idea that everyone is/should be treated equal. (Unless there's a morally relevant difference in persons.

Impartiality

6

What is this fallacy?
If A, then B, then C, THEN Z!! 😟
(Z is likely to be improbable)

Slippery slope fallacy

7

To participate in morality

Reasonableness

8

Normative dominance

Moral norms are presumed to dominate other kinds of norms

9

The study of morality using the tools and methods of philosophy.

Ethics

10

The use of moral norms and concepts to resolve practical moral issues.

Applied ethics

11

Coercion

Using severe harm or threat to control another's actions

12

What is the term for a bad/defective argument?

Fallacy

13

Moral norms are presumed to dominate other kinds of norms

Normative dominance

14

Apply in all cases unless exceptions are made.

•Respect for autonomy
•Beneficence
•Non Maleficence
•Utility (justice)

Prima Facie Principles

15

Overriding a persons actions or decision making, or known preferences, for the persons own good.

Paternalism

16

There are moral norms or principles that are valid or true for everyone.

Moral objectivism

17

Use severe threat or harm to control another's actions

Coercion

18

A person comes to believe something through the merit of reasons (not controlling influences)

Persuasion

19

Conveying info in a way that makes the person do something he or she might not want to do otherwise

Manipulation

20

Ethics

The study of morality using the tools and methods of philosophy

21

Overriding the preferences of a competent person.

Strong paternalism

22

We owe others to help them further their interests. We owe this to those we have a special relationship. Ex. Parents, teachers, lawyers, physicians

Specific beneficence

23

A just distribution is one that produces the most overall happiness

Utilitarian

24

Reasonableness

To participate in morality

25

Casuistry

A method of moral reasoning that emphasizes cases and analogy rather than universal principles and theories, from which moral judgments are supposed to be deducted

26

Emphasizes personal freedoms and the right to pursue one's own interest without interference. They want limited government

Libertarian

27

If followed consistently, would create for everyone involved the most good.

Rule utilitarian

28

The rightness of actions as determined partly or entirely by their intrinsic value

Deontology (Kant)

29

Asserts that the rightness of actions depends solely on their consequences

Consequentialism

30

Impartiality

Everyone is/should be treated equal (unless there is a morally relevant difference in persons)

31

Character is the key to the moral life. For Aristotle, a morally good person flourishes is in life

Virtue ethics

32

The virtuous person has an ingrained habit and can be relied on to be kind, honest, etc. virtuous traits are those that are good for people to have.

Virtue (according to Aristotle)

33

Good Samaritan actions

Supererogatory

34

Caring for those with whom you have a special, intimate connection. Obligation to do right by patients, family, and friends

Care ethics

35

What are the 6 virtues?

•Caring- Willingness to act on behalf of persons.
•Compassion- an active regard for another's welfare
•Conscientiousness- motivation to do what's right because it's right
•Discernment- the ability to judge well
•Integrity- being honest and having strong moral principle
•Trustworthiness- to have confidence in ones character and conduct

36

What is an argument?

At least one statement (premise) providing support for another statement (conclusion)

37

What is a deductive argument?

Argument intended to give logically conclusive support to its conclusion
ex. "Jane is a female sibling, therefore a sister."

38

What is an inductive argument?

An argument intended to give probable support to its conclusion.

Ex. The weather

39

Do we evaluate conclusions?

NO!

40

Egalitarianism

All people are equal, and deserve equal opportunities

41

Moral arguments

If you accept the premises, then you should accept the conclusion.
•A moral argument is one whose conclusion is a moral statement.

Has: At least 1 moral premise and at least 1 nonmoral.

42

Hypothetical imperatives

Dependent on desires.

If you want X, then do Y.

Ex. If you want good grades, go to school.

43

View that right actions are sanctioned by ones culture.

Cultural relativism

44

Arguments within an argument intended to establish the truth of premises that aren't already accepted.

Sub-arguments

45

Why are the 2 aspects of argument evaluation?

1. Evaluation of the premises
•(True or acceptable? Are they all around false? Acceptable or need further support?)

2. Evaluation of the reasoning from the premises to the conclusion.
•(Does the conclusion follow from the premises? Do the premises provide enough support for the conclusion to justify it?)

46

Fallacy

The bad/defective argument

47

Specific beneficence

We owe others (positive obligation) to help them further their interests ex. Teachers, physicians, parents.

48

Moral standards are not objective, but are relative to what individuals think or believe.

Ethical relativism

49

Strawman fallacy

When a person makes someone's point appear extreme/distorted

50

Slippery slope fallacy

If A, then B, then C, then Z!!! 😟

51

Not obligated to help others we don't have a relationship with, but it's encouraged

General beneficence

52

Applied ethics

The use of moral norms and concepts to resolve practical moral issues

53

Bioethics

Applied ethics focused on healthcare, medical science, and medical technology

54

Prima Facie Principles

Apply in all cases unless exceptions are warranted or conflict with another principle

55

Criteria for an autonomous choice?

Voluntary

Informed

Must have decision making capacity

56

Absolute Principles

Apply without exceptions

57

Moral objectivism

There are moral norms or principles that are valid or true for everyone

58

Ethical relativism

Moral standards are not objective, but Are relative to what individuals think or believe

59

All people are equal and deserve equal opportunities

Egalitarianism

60

Cultural relativism

Right actions are sanctioned by ones culture

61

Paternalism

Overriding a persons actions or preferences for their own good

62

Persuasion

A person comes to believe something Through the merit of reasons

63

Applied without exceptions (Ex. No lying in any situation)

Absolute principle

64

Manipulation

Conveying info in a way that makes the person do something he or she might not do otherwise

65

Weak paternalism

Overriding known preferences of a person thought to be incompetent to decide

66

General beneficence

We are not obligated to help others when we do not have a special relationship with them, but it is encouraged

67

Strong paternalism

Overriding the preferences of a competent person

68

Libertarian

Emphasize personal freedoms, would like limited government, and the right to peruse ones own interests w/o interference

69

Consequentialism

The rightness of actions depends solely on their consequences (utilitarianism)

70

Rule utilitarianism

If followed consistently, would create for everyone the most good ?

71

Virtue ethics

Character is the key to the moral life. Aristotle believes a morally good person flourishes in life.

72

Virtue (Aristotle)

Person can be relied on to be kind, honest, etc. (it's habit) virtuous traits are those that are good for people to have.

73

Respect for Autonomy and ex of rules

The ability to choose and make decisions for oneself

1. Tell the truth
2. Obtain consent
3. Respect privacy

74

What is non maleficence and ex of rules

Asks us not to intentionally or unintentionally inflict harm on others

Ex. If a nurse recklessly, or ignorantly harms a patient by administering too much med
Or
If a nurse gives medicine knowing it would induce a heart attack.

1. Do not kill
2. Do not cause pain or suffering
3. Do not deprive others a good life

75

Categorical imperatives

Unconditional claims not dependent on desires

Do X PERIOD

EX. Keep your promises, tell the truth, don't steal.

76

Criticism of Act Utilitarianism

•Goes against our intuitions about justice and the rights of individuals
~Convict an innocent individual in order to satisfy a family?
•Too demanding, requiring us to perform supererogatory actions.

77

Problems with Rule utilitarianism

•We should allow for exceptions, but how do you determine when exceptions are appropriate?

78

Theories of obligation or duty, and examples?

What makes actions right or wrong, which actions are morally obligatory, permissible, forbidden, etc.

Ex. Utilitarianism, Divine Command, Kant.

79

Virtue based Theories and example?

Focus on the development of certain character traits.

Ex. Virtue ethics and care ethics

80

First and second formulation of the CI?

1. Act according to the maxim that it would be become a universal law.
•so if everyone stopped and fed the homeless would this result in good everywhere? Yes.
2. Act so that you always treat others as an end, never as a means to an end.
•so if I feel obliged to feed the homeless man and do so, I'm not thinking about the consequences or benefits to myself. I treat the person as an end. If I feel inclined to do so because I'll feel good about myself afterwards, I treat the homeless person as a means to an end.

81

Problems with Kants theory

•Can you build exceptions into your maxim about actions like lying, stealing, etc. so that it could be universalized?
•What do you do when 2 moral rules conflict?

82

Beneficence and ex of rules

Advance the welfare of others and prevent or remove harm to them.
Ex. Health care professionals, researchers, etc. already have an obligation to promote good. It's their jobs.

1. Protect and defend others rights
2. Rescue persons in danger
3. Remove harm
4. Prevent harm

83

Purpose of Doctrine of Double effect and criteria

If doing something morally good has a morally bad side effect, it is ethically ok to do it providing the bad side effect was not intended.
~Ex. Getting an abortion because if would save the mothers life.
•the bad effect may be foreseen, but not intended
•the act itself was not intrinsically wrong
•the good effect is desirable to compensate to the bad effect
•the good effect is produced by the action and not the bad effect.

84

Applied ethics focused on health care, medical science, and medical technology.

Bioethics

85

Overriding the known preferences of a person thought to be incompetent to decide.

Weak paternalism