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Flashcards in Biological Molecules Deck (40)
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1

What is Carbon Chemistry?

Carbon is the backbone of all life, life is descended from one common ancestor which also used carbon chemistry.

2

Why is carbon special?

It has four bonds allowing it to create more complex molecules

3

What are the four types of biological molecule?

Carbs, Lipids, Proteins and nucleic acids

4

What do carbs contain?

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

5

What do lipids contain?

Mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

6

What do proteins contain?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur

7

What do nucleic acids contain?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus

8

What are biological molecules known as?

Macromolecules

9

What are polymers

Polymers are built up from repeating smaller building blocks called monomers, each block is bonded together

10

What are monomers

induvidual molecules that make up a polymer

11

What are polymers and monomers called in carbs

monosaccharides
polysaccharides

12

What are polymers and monomers called in proteins

amino acids
polypeptides

13

What are polymers and monomers called in nucleic acids

nucleotides
polynucleotides

14

What are lipids (polymers and monomers)

they are macromolecules but are not polyemers, they are made up of a number of different base units joined together in a non repeating order

15

What is a condensation reaction

bonding of one monomer to another
this forms a molecule of water
water is formed through the grouping of hydroxl from one monomer and hydgogen from another monomer
the two molecules combine to form a more complex molecule with the removal of water

16

what is a hydrolysis reaction

requires water to break the bond
larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules through the addition of water

17

what type of reactions are hydrolysis and condenstaion

metabolic reaction

18

what are carbahydrate uses

source and storage of energy
helps with structre of plants e.g cell wall
only contain hydrogen, oxygen and carbon

19

what is the simplsist form of carbs

monosaccharides

20

two monosaccharides

disaccharides

21

many monosaccharides

polysaccharide

22

features of monosaccharides

sweet
soluble
single sugar monomers

23

general formula of monosaccarides

(CH2O)n where n is the number of atoms

24

give an example and name the molecular formula off triose

C3H6O3
Glyceraldehyde

25

give an example and name the molecular formula off tetrose

C4H8O4
Therose

26

give an example and name the molecular formula off pentrose

C5H10O5
Ribose

27

give an example and name the molecular formula off hexose

C6H12O6
Glucose

28

Why is glucose important?

It's the main source of energy in respiration
It is used as building blocks for larger carbs

29

Properties of glucose making it well adpated for it's role

Small so easily transported in and out of cells through carrier proteins
Soluble so easily transported
Less reactive so break must be catalysed by en\ymes therfore controled by enzymes which controls the rate of respiration

30

What is an isomer of glucose

a different structual form of glucose