Flashcards in Biological Molecules Deck (40)
What is Carbon Chemistry?
Carbon is the backbone of all life, life is descended from one common ancestor which also used carbon chemistry.
Why is carbon special?
It has four bonds allowing it to create more complex molecules
What are the four types of biological molecule?
Carbs, Lipids, Proteins and nucleic acids
What do carbs contain?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What do lipids contain?
Mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What do proteins contain?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
What do nucleic acids contain?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
What are biological molecules known as?
What are polymers
Polymers are built up from repeating smaller building blocks called monomers, each block is bonded together
What are monomers
induvidual molecules that make up a polymer
What are polymers and monomers called in carbs
What are polymers and monomers called in proteins
What are polymers and monomers called in nucleic acids
What are lipids (polymers and monomers)
they are macromolecules but are not polyemers, they are made up of a number of different base units joined together in a non repeating order
What is a condensation reaction
bonding of one monomer to another
this forms a molecule of water
water is formed through the grouping of hydroxl from one monomer and hydgogen from another monomer
the two molecules combine to form a more complex molecule with the removal of water
what is a hydrolysis reaction
requires water to break the bond
larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules through the addition of water
what type of reactions are hydrolysis and condenstaion
what are carbahydrate uses
source and storage of energy
helps with structre of plants e.g cell wall
only contain hydrogen, oxygen and carbon
what is the simplsist form of carbs
features of monosaccharides
single sugar monomers
general formula of monosaccarides
(CH2O)n where n is the number of atoms
give an example and name the molecular formula off triose
give an example and name the molecular formula off tetrose
give an example and name the molecular formula off pentrose
give an example and name the molecular formula off hexose
Why is glucose important?
It's the main source of energy in respiration
It is used as building blocks for larger carbs
Properties of glucose making it well adpated for it's role
Small so easily transported in and out of cells through carrier proteins
Soluble so easily transported
Less reactive so break must be catalysed by en\ymes therfore controled by enzymes which controls the rate of respiration