Biological Molocules 1 Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology: Topic 1 (Edexcel) > Biological Molocules 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological Molocules 1 Deck (48):
1

How many bonds can a carbon atom make?

4

2

What are carbohydrates used for?

Engergy source for storing energy
Form part of the cell wall

3

What are monosaccharides?

Simple sugars
For every carbon, there is one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms

4

What are the three types of monosacchardies?

Triose sugars
Pentose sugars
Hexose sugars

5

What is the general formula for triose sugars?

C3H6O3

6

Where are triose sugars important?

In the mitochondria where glucose is broken down into triose sugars during respiration

7

What is the general formula for pentose sugars?

C5H10O5

8

Where are pentose sugars important?

In nucleic acids where they make up ribose and deoxyribose

9

What are 2 examples of pentose sugars?

ribose
deoxyribose

10

What is the general formula for hexose sugars?

C6H12O6

11

What are some examples of hexose sugars?

glucose
galactose
fructose

12

What are the two different types of glucose?

alpha
beta

13

On which carbon is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?

1

14

What are disacchardies?

Two monosaccharides joined together in a condensation reaction to form a glycosidic bond

15

What kind of reaction joins two monosaccharides together?

Condensation reaction

16

What is the waste product of a condensation reaction?

A molocule of water

17

What bond is formed in a condensation reaction between two monosacchardies?

Glycosidic

18

What carbon atoms on monosacchardies join when a glycosidic bond is formed?

carbon 1 on the first molocule and carbon 6 or 4 on the second

19

What are some examples of disacchardies?

Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose

20

Where is sucrose found?

Stored in plants

21

What monosaccharides make up sucrose?

alpha glucose
fructose

22

Where is lactose found?

Milk

23

What monosaccharides make up lactose?

alpha glucose
beta galactose

24

Where is maltose found?

Malt sugar

25

What monosaccharides make up maltose?

2 molocules of alpha glucose

26

What does the Benedict's test test for?

Reducing sugars

27

What colour will the Benedict's test change in the presence of reducing sugars?

Orange

28

What is a polysaccharide?

Many monosaccharides joined together

29

Why are polysaccharides ideal as large storage molocules?

They're compact so can be stored in large numbers
Bonds are easily broken so they can be released rapidly
Insoluable so have no effect on water potential of cells

30

How are polysaccharides broken down?

Hydolysis reaction on the glycosidic bond where water is added and the monosaccharides seperate

31

Where does hydrolysis take place?

The gut during digestion
Muscle and liver cells where carbohydrate stores are broken down to release sugars in cellular respiration

32

What is the function of starch?

Energy store in plants

33

What two compounds make up starch?

Amylose
Amylopectin

34

What is the general structure of amylose?

Unbranched polymer that spirals to be stored

35

What is the general structure of amylopectin?

Branched polymer with many ends that can be broken off rapidly

36

What bonds are found in amylose?

1-4 glycosidic bonds

37

What monosaccharide is amylose and amylopectin (starch) made from?

Alpha glucose

38

What bonds are found in amylopectin?

1-4 and a few 1-6 glycosidic bonds resulting in branching chains

39

Why is it important for starch to have both amylose and amylopectin?

Amylopectin can be released much faster for a rapid response and amylose is released more slowly to keep energy going over time

40

What is the function of glycogen?

Energy store in animals

41

What monosaccharide is glycogen made from?

Alpha glucose

42

What bonds are found in glycogen

1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds

43

What is the difference between amylopectin and glycogen?

Glycogen has even more 1-6 bonds for faster release

44

Where is cellulose found?

Plant cell wall

45

What monosaccharides make up cellulose?

Beta glucose

46

What bonds are found in cellulose?

1-4 glycosidic bonds

47

How do hydrogen bonds form between strands of cellulose?

Every other molocule is inverted so bonds form between the positively charged hydroxyl groups and the negatively charged oxygen atoms

48

What is the general structure of cellulose?

Long chains linked together by hydrogen bonds