Flashcards in Biological Molocules 1 Deck (48):
How many bonds can a carbon atom make?
What are carbohydrates used for?
Engergy source for storing energy
Form part of the cell wall
What are monosaccharides?
For every carbon, there is one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms
What are the three types of monosacchardies?
What is the general formula for triose sugars?
Where are triose sugars important?
In the mitochondria where glucose is broken down into triose sugars during respiration
What is the general formula for pentose sugars?
Where are pentose sugars important?
In nucleic acids where they make up ribose and deoxyribose
What are 2 examples of pentose sugars?
What is the general formula for hexose sugars?
What are some examples of hexose sugars?
What are the two different types of glucose?
On which carbon is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?
What are disacchardies?
Two monosaccharides joined together in a condensation reaction to form a glycosidic bond
What kind of reaction joins two monosaccharides together?
What is the waste product of a condensation reaction?
A molocule of water
What bond is formed in a condensation reaction between two monosacchardies?
What carbon atoms on monosacchardies join when a glycosidic bond is formed?
carbon 1 on the first molocule and carbon 6 or 4 on the second
What are some examples of disacchardies?
Where is sucrose found?
Stored in plants
What monosaccharides make up sucrose?
Where is lactose found?
What monosaccharides make up lactose?
Where is maltose found?
What monosaccharides make up maltose?
2 molocules of alpha glucose
What does the Benedict's test test for?
What colour will the Benedict's test change in the presence of reducing sugars?
What is a polysaccharide?
Many monosaccharides joined together
Why are polysaccharides ideal as large storage molocules?
They're compact so can be stored in large numbers
Bonds are easily broken so they can be released rapidly
Insoluable so have no effect on water potential of cells
How are polysaccharides broken down?
Hydolysis reaction on the glycosidic bond where water is added and the monosaccharides seperate
Where does hydrolysis take place?
The gut during digestion
Muscle and liver cells where carbohydrate stores are broken down to release sugars in cellular respiration
What is the function of starch?
Energy store in plants
What two compounds make up starch?
What is the general structure of amylose?
Unbranched polymer that spirals to be stored
What is the general structure of amylopectin?
Branched polymer with many ends that can be broken off rapidly
What bonds are found in amylose?
1-4 glycosidic bonds
What monosaccharide is amylose and amylopectin (starch) made from?
What bonds are found in amylopectin?
1-4 and a few 1-6 glycosidic bonds resulting in branching chains
Why is it important for starch to have both amylose and amylopectin?
Amylopectin can be released much faster for a rapid response and amylose is released more slowly to keep energy going over time
What is the function of glycogen?
Energy store in animals
What monosaccharide is glycogen made from?
What bonds are found in glycogen
1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
What is the difference between amylopectin and glycogen?
Glycogen has even more 1-6 bonds for faster release
Where is cellulose found?
Plant cell wall
What monosaccharides make up cellulose?
What bonds are found in cellulose?
1-4 glycosidic bonds
How do hydrogen bonds form between strands of cellulose?
Every other molocule is inverted so bonds form between the positively charged hydroxyl groups and the negatively charged oxygen atoms