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Flashcards in Biological Treatments Deck (11):

Typical antipsychotics

The original neuroleptic drugs created in the 1950s to treat schizophrenia.
E.g. Chlorpromazine


Atypical antipsychotics

A class of neuroleptic drugs produced later in the 1990s, used to treat schizophrenia.
E.g. Clozapine



The most effective atypical antipsychotic drug.
Can cause a blood condition called agranulocytosis.
Daily dosage is 300-450mg a day.
Binds dopamine receptors was well as acting of serotonin and glutamate receptors.
Has mood-enhancing effects.


What is the daily dosage of clozapine?



How does clozapine work?

Binds dopamine receptors as well as acting on serotonin and glutamate receptors.
Helps improve mood and reduce depression and anxiety in patients, that may then improve cognitive functioning.


What percentage of sufferers attempt suicide at some point?



What is risperidone?

A more recently developed atypical antipsychotic.
Developed to be as effective as clozapine but with less side effects.
Can be taken in the form of tablets, syrup or injection.
Small dose originally given, then built up to 4-8mg and a max of 12mg.


How does risperidone work?

Believed to bind dopamine and serotonin receptors.
Binds more strongly to dopamine receptors than clozapine so is effective in smaller doses.



Can be take as tablets, syrup or injection.
Maximum of 1000mg if orally administered.
For most patients the dosage is gradually increased to a max of 490-800mg.
Works by acting as an antagonist to the dopamine system, reducing the action of the neurotransmitter.
Also an effective sedative.


What are the maximum doses of chlorpromazine?

If orally administered it can be up to 1000mg.
Initially doses are much smaller and for most patients is usually gradually increased to a maximum of 400-800mg.


Liu de Haan (2009)

Typical prescribed doses of chlorpromazine have decline over the last 50 years.