Flashcards in biology_praxis_flash_cards (1) Deck (407):
What do Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler major contributions?
Aristotle: Geocentric Universe (350 BC)Ptolemy: Geocentric Universe (140 BC)Copernicus: earth spinning on its axis / Sun Centered Universe (1530)Galileo: invented telescope (1564)Kepler: Elliptical Heliocentric Orbits (1571)
What is Newton most famous for?
Newton: The three laws of motion (1643-1727)
Who is known as the father of geology?
Charles Lyell: Principles of Geology
Who came up with the Theory of Relativity?
Albert Einstein: Theory of Relatively (1879)
Who came up with Plate Tectonics?
Alfred Wagner (1900)
Who is responsible for The laws of Conservation of Matter?
Lavoisier and Dalton (1700 -1800)
What are Ernest Rutherford and Enrico Fermi well known for?
Radioactivity and Nuclear Fission
Who came up with The Evolution of Species?
What is Antonie van Leeuwenhoek well known for?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope. He was the first to observe microorganisms. Discovery of the cell came afterward by Robert Hooke
Who wrote the book/paper "The Nature of Diseases and Germs" ?
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
What is the Industrial Revolution well known for?
Technological advances of steam engine (1800)
What is the difference between theory and law?
A theory does not eventually become a law. A theory describes one part of a law. The law is a general statement, where a theory describes a specific phenomenon. A theory is tested many times before it qualifies as a theory.
What is the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRECESSION AND ACCURACY?
Precision deals with exactness. If a piece of chalk measures 5 grams. A student weights it three times: 8.8 g, 8.8 g, and 8.9 g. In this case, his data is precise, but not accurate. There is not a big difference between these numbers, but there is a big difference between these numbers and the actual weight of the chalk. Accuracy, on the other hand, relates back to the true weight value. Accurate results are the correct result, or closest to 5 grams.
What is the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MASS AND WEIGHT?
Mass does not change based on locations. It is independent of any other factors. It is measured in grams using a triple beam balance.Weight varies based on location, and the impact of gravity force pulling on it. It is measured in Newtons.
What is the formula for CONVERTING FROM FAHRENHEIT TO CELSIUS?
C = 5/9 (F -32)
What is the formula for CONVERTING FROM CELSIUS TO FAHRENHEIT?
F = 9/5 C + 32
What is the independent factor?
the factor applied to the dependent factor to see how the dependent factor would be affected. This factor does not change, but it changes the dependent factor.
What is the dependent factor?
the factor changed due to the effects of the independent factor affecting it.
What is a control?
The factor kept constant without applying the independent factor to it. It is a differentiating factor to the dependent factor which had the independent being applied to. It is used as a comparison factor to the dependent factor.
What is the Scientific Method ?
o Purpose: The question that the experiment is testingo Research: Gather information o Hypothesis: Make an educated guesso Experiment: Test the hypothesiso Analysis: Gather data and compare resultso Conclusion: In the conclusions, one must reference the hypothesis, and then summarize the results.
What is an element ?
An Element is a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substance by chemical means (Examples: H, O, N, C, etc...).
What is an molecule ?
Molecule is a group of atoms that are held together by chemical force of the same element; a molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance’s chemical properties (Examples: H2, O2, etc...).
What is a compound ?
A Compound is a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds. All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds (Examples: H2O, NaCl2, etc.).
What is a mixture ?
A Mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are not bonded chemically (Example: A salad (tomatoes and lettuce pieces are not combined chemically; they are merely mixed)).
What is a chemical change?
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into an entirely new substance, which is made up of different properties (Example: wood to ash).
What is a chemical property?
A chemical characteristic that is unique to a specific substance. Boiling points and freezing point are examples of chemical properties.
What is a physical change?
A change of matter from one form, to another, without a change in the chemical properties of the substance (Example: H2O (water) to H2O (ice)).
What is a physical property ?
Characteristics the can be observed without changing the identity of the substance. Size and color are examples of physical properties.
What is a Ionic Bond?
the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another (metal + nonmetal).
What is a Covalent Bond ?
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons (nonmetal + nonmetal).
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
a bond formed between H, O, and N atoms.
What unit is used to measure length ?
What unit is used to measure mass ?
What unit is used to measure electric current?
What unit is used to measure temperature?
What unit is used to measure light intensity?
What is a homogenous mixture?
In homogenous mixtures, the components are evenly distributed. The mixture is the same throughout, such as apple juice.
What is a heterogeneous mixture ?
Components in heterogeneous mixtures are not evenly distributed. Example: salsa, orange juice with pulp, etc. …
What is an atom ?
An Atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains all of its chemical properties.
What is a pure substance ?
A Pure substance is a sample of matter, which has definite chemical and physical properties.
What is a Density Column ?
A Density Column displays multiple layers of liquids that differ in density and solubility.
What is volume ?
Volume is a measure of the size of a region in three dimensions (H x W x L).
What is boiling point ?
Boiling Point is the temperature and pressure at which a liquid becomes a gas.
How are the particles arranged in a liquid?
In a Liquid, particles are close together, and are in contact most of the time.
What are the different ways to investigate scientific phonemes?
Direct observationsModeling Testing hypothesis
What is a conclusion in the scientific method?
In the conclusion, one must reference the hypothesis, and then summarize the results.
Matter can be divided into what three main categories?
elements, compounds, and mixtures.
What is matter
Matter is anything that has mass and takes place
What are liters ?
Liters is a standard SI unit of volume
What is a Metric System ?
The Metric System is a standard system of measurement.
What are carbohydrates?
Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1
What are monosaccharide?
A Monosaccharide is a carbohydrate that is composed of one molecule of simple sugars such as Glucose.
What are disaccharide?
A Disaccharide is a carbohydrate that is composed of two molecules of simple sugars such as Maltose.
What are polysaccharide?
A Polysaccharide is a carbohydrate that is composed of two or more molecules of simple sugars, such as Glycogen and Starch.
What are polymers?
Polymers are built via dehydration reaction and broken down by hydrolysis reactions
What are lipids ?
o Structure: 3 fatty acids attached to 1 glycerolo Function: Energy storage, insulation, and protection
What are proteins?
o Joined by peptide bonds via Dehydration Reactionso Synthesis Stages: Primary, secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structures
What are the four structures of plants synthesis?
o Primary Structure: Chains of amino acidso Secondary Structure: 2 types:B sheets , Alpha helixo Tertiary structures are made up of R- groups interactions forming either Globular or Fibrous proteins.Interactions of hydrophobic and hydrophilic partso Quaternary Structure: Joining of polypeptides or proteins together
What are Simple Proteins?
They are composed only on Amino Acids
What are Albumin / GlobulinProteins?
They form carriers and enzymes
What are Scleroprotein?
Fibrous Structures i.e. Collagen
What are Conjugated Proteins?
Simple proteins + non-proteins
What are Lipoprotein?
Protein + Lipids
What are Mucoprotein?
Protein + Carbohydrates
What are Chromoprotein?
Protein + pigment
What are Metalloproteins?
Protein + Metal
What are Nucleoproteins?
Histone protamine + nucleic acids
What are Coenzyme?
Protein + non-protein ( organic/ not found in diet)
What are Cofactors?
Protein + non-protein that are nonorganicsubstances i.e. metal, Zn, Fe, or prosthetic group
What are Hormones?
What are Enzymes?
What are Structural Protein?
What are Transport Protein?
What are some characteristics of Enzymes?
o Enzymes decrease activation energyo Enzymes use substrates that interact with an active siteo Enzymes do not alter the equilibrium constanto Enzymes do not get consumed in the reactiono Enzymes are PH and Temperature sensitive
What PH environment best fits most enzymes?
o Most enzymes function best at a PH of 7.2. Few are acidic like Pepsin, which functions at a PH of 2 in the stomach. Others are basic such as Pancreatic Enzymes, which work best at a PH of 8.5 in the small intestine.
What are Competitive Inhibition?
o Competitive Inhibition: a “counterfeit” substrate,similar to the structure of the real substrate, attaches to the active site. The more of this substrate present, the more the competition. It competes with the real substrate for an interaction with the active site.
What are Noncompetitive Inhibition?
Noncompetitive Inhibition: IRREVERSIBLE: A“counterfeit” substrate forms a strong covalent bondwith the enzyme’s active site, making it nonfunctional.
What are Allosteric Inhabitation?
If a substrate attaches anywhere on the enzymebesides on the active site, the interaction is called an Allosteric Inhabitation.
What is the function of Protease?
Protease breaks proteins to Amino acids.
What is the function of Lipase?
Lipase breaks Lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
What type of bond forms between carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates: glycosides bonds
What type of bond forms between nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids: phosphodiester bonds
What type of bond forms between proteins?
Proteins: peptide bonds
What type of bond forms between lipids?
Lipids do not form chains
What macromolecules does not form monomers?
All Macromolecules form chains of joined monomers, except lipids.
What is the function of carbohydrates?
Function: Storage of energy glucose, glycogen: animal energy storage
What is the function of lipids?
Function: Energy storage, insulation, and protection
What are the synthesis stages of proteins?
Synthesis Stages: Primary, secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structures
What are the main components of Cell Theory?
o All living things are composed of cellso Cells are the basic unit of lifeo Chemical reactions regulate certain process within the cello Cells arise only from pre-existing cellso Cells carry genetic info on DNAs
What is the function of the Cell Membrane?
It manages the transport within and outside the cell.
What is the function of the Nucleus?
o It is the main office of the cell, where DNA is found.o The nucleus contains inside of it both histones and chromosomes.o RNA synthesis occurs in the nucleolus, which is inside the Nucleus.o The nucleus controls cell division.o The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
What is the function of the Ribosomes?
o Proteins are synthesized in the Ribosomes.o Ribosomes are synthesized in the nucleolus.o Attached ribosomes are attached to an organelle like the rough ER.o Unattached ribosomes are floating in the cytoplasm.o Ribosomes floating in the cell synthesize proteins that will be used within the cell, while ribosomes that are attached to the ER synthesize proteins that will be exported outside of the cell.
What is the function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
o The Rough ER has ribosomes. It is responsible for packaging and transporting proteins and lipids.o The Smooth ER does not have ribosomes. It is responsible for packing and storing protein that will be exported out of the cell.
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
It is responsible for modifying, packaging, and shipping proteins. Here is the process:1. The Golgi Apparatus receives the proteins from the ER.2. It modifies the protein using a process called glycosylation.3. It repackages them in vesicles.4. These packages are transported out of the cell via exocytosis.
What is the function of the Mitochondria?
o It is the powerhouse of the cell, where energy is made.o It is a sight aerobic respiration.o Mitochondrial DNA is identical in the mother as well as the offspring.
What is the function of the Cytoplasm?
It is the jell-like material surrounding the organelles. Cyclosis is the streaming movement within the cell.
What is the function of the Protoplasm?
It is the living part of the cell. Not all cells within a living organism are alive. For example, the dead cork cells of a plant do not have protoplasm.
What is the function of the Vacuole?
It is the lunch box for plant cells, where their food and water is kept.
What is the function of the Centrioles?
It is responsible for spindle organization They are found in the region of the centrosomes
What is the function of the Lysosome?
o It contains hydrolytic enzymeo An injured cell may commit “suicide” (autolysis).o It helps white blood cells destroy viruses.o It is formed in the ER and then transported to the Golgi Apparatus.o If a lysosome is trying to get rid of an organelle, it fuses with that organelle.
What is the function of the Cytoskeleton?
o It is responsible for shape and motilityo It is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filament • Microtubules are hollow rods, made up of polymerized tubulin i.e. centrioles, cilia, and flagella • Microfilaments are solid rods of actin, myosin. It uses amoeboid movement
What is the different between plant cells and animal cells?
Plants have centrosomeso Plants have cell wallso Plants have chloroplasts
What is SIMPLE DIFFUSION?
o It is passive transport, or it does not require energyo It moves dissolved particles down concentration gradient
What is OSMOSIS?
It is simple diffusion of only watero It moves water from regions of high concentration to regions of lowconcentrations.
What is Isotonic solution?
It is the equal movement between the cell and thesurrounding
What is Hypotonic Solution?
Water will flow into the cell causing the cell toexpand and eventually lyse (burst)
What is Hypertonic Solution?
Water will flow out of the cell, thus shrinkingthe cell (plasmolysis).
What is FACILITATED DIFFUSION?
It is passive transporto It moves particles down concentration gradiento It uses special channels and carrier proteins
What is Active Transport?
It can transport proteins against concentration gradient• Symporters: moves ions• Antiporters: exchanges one ion for another• Pumps require ATP to move ions in and out.
What is ENDOCYTOSIS?
o It is the movement of particles from the outside of the cell to the inside using vesicles. When these vesicles are carrying water, it is called pinocytosis.
What is EXOCYTOSIS?
o It is the movement of particles from the inside of the cell to the outside via vesicles.
What is the Brownian Movement?
Brownian Movement is the process by which kinetic energy spreads small particles throughout the cytoplasm.
What is the Extracellular Circulation?
Diffusion is a way by which food and Oxygen is moved within the cell. Nutrient diffuses between cells that are in direct or close contact. Circulatory describes movement that extends over a large distance.
What is the Respiration Overall Equation?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6COs + 6H2O + Energy (36 ATP)
What are the three steps of respiration?
o It has three steps: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and Electron Transport
Where does glycolysis happen?
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
What is the net gain of ATPs of glycolysis?
Net gain of 2 ATP
Besides ATP, what are the other products produced by glycolysis?
It, also, produces: 2 NADH2 2 Pyruvate
Is glycolysis anaerobic?
It is anaerobic
What is the prep step for the Kreps Cycle?
o The pyruvate becomes 2 Acetyl COAo It produces: 2 CO2 2 NADH2
Where does the Kreps Cycle happen?
o Occurs in the Mitochondria
What are the products of the Kreps Cycle?
It produces: 4 CO2 4 NADH2 2 FADH2 2 ATP
What is the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN?
o It is an aerobic reactiono H+ attaches ADP + P (phosphorylation) = ATP
What is the Lytic Cycle?
The virus takes control of the entire cell and produces numerous progeny. This causes the cell to rupture and consequently the virus spreads.
What is the Lysogenic Cycle?
The virus goes into the cell, acting harmless (provirus), and therefore the cell does notform resistant to further infection (super infection)
Alternative forms of an observable characteristic (For example, skin color would be the observable characteristic. Its alleles are the genotype that represents the dark or light skin colors.)
Genetic makeup coding for a phenotype
Physical manifestation of the genotype (the phenotype is observable, while the genotype is the genetic makeup that codes for that observable trait)
Two identical alleles for the same trait (example: rr,RR)
Two different alleles for the same trait (example: Rr)
What is the Law of Dominance?
The dominant allele is the one expressedin the phenotype
What is The one gene- onepolypeptide hypothesis?
This hypothesis states that each polypeptide makes up only one gene of the many genes that code for a protein. Previously, it was believed that each polypeptide coded for an entire protein, alsoknown as the Monocistronic Hypothesis.
What is the Monocistronic Hypothesis?
One gene is coded for by only one protein
Define: P generation
The P generation is the generation that consists of the individuals being crossed (parents)
Define: F generation
The F generation is the resulting generation from a cross
What is a progeny?
It is another name for the F generation
What is a trisomy?
Three copies of a chromosome rather than the normal two copies (example: down syndrome is caused by a trisomy of chromosome 21)
What is a monosomy?
One copy of a chromosome rather than the usual two copies
What is a monohybrid cross?
A cross, where only one trait can be studied
What is a testcross?
It is used to determine whether a phenotypicallydominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous. Both Rr and RR would produce dominant phenotypes. A testcross is used to determine whether the genotype is RR or Rr.
What is a backcross?
A cross between one individual from the F generation and one individual from the P generation
What is a punnett cross?
A method to predict the genotype of an expectedcross
What is the Law of Independent Assortment?
A law that states that genes on the same chromosome will stay together unless crossing over occur
What is a dihybrid cross?
A cross, where two traits can be studied.
Define: Incomplete Dominance
An allele is incompletely dominant if thephenotype of the heterozygous is intermediate of the homozygous phenotypes. (For example, if redwere crossed with white, the intermediate would be produced, pink.)
Codominance happens when more than one dominate allele exists and more than one of them is dominant. (For example, if red were crossed withwhite, then a striped individual would be produced since both colors are dominant.)
A gene, which its expression is dependent onanother gene’s expression.
What is the 4 laws that Mendel came up with as the basis for genetics?
1.Genes exist in alternative forms (alleles)2. An organism has two segregated alleles from each parent for eachsomatic trait.3. Gametes cells are haploid4. Alleles are either Dominant or Recessive.
The sex of organisms is determined by the combination of homologous sex allele i.e. XX or XY) XY= male; xx= females 22 somatic chromosomes + 2x = females 22 somatic chromosomes+ 1x +1Y = Male
How is Sickle Cell Anemia passed down?
How is Huntington Disease passed down?
How is Hemophilia passed down?
Sex linked Recessive on X (Males have no way of being a carrier)
How is Polydactylism passed down?
How is PKU passed down?
Recessive Autosomal gene
How is Tay Sacs passed down?
o Recessive Autosomal geneo Down Syndromeo Three copies of chromosome 21
How is Klinefelter passed down?
XXY (one extra X chromosome
How is Albinism passed down?
How is Tunrer Syndrome passed down?
Females with only one X rather than two
What is the Rh incompatibility?
It happens when the mother is RH- and is pregnant with a child that has RH+. This causes the mother’s blood to attack the child’s blood, thinking it is a foreign body. This usually causes more problems in the second pregnancy or later pregnancies.
A long chain of DNA
It is a small segment of Histones + DNA loose structures DNA during the interphase is referred to as chromatin due to its loose structure.
It is a long segment of chromatin. The analogy ofbeads on a string is usually used to refer tonucleosomes.
Describe the stage of interphase in mitosis
• Most cells are in the interphase stage• Cells that do not divide are always in G0 stage
Describe the G1 stage of interphase in mitosis
G1 Stage initiates interphase. The length of this stage determines the length ofthe entire cell cycle
Describe the S stage of interphase in mitosis
S Stage: the period of DNA synthesisDuring the S phase, whether during mitosis or meiosis, there is always 4n’s. During mitosis, those 4n’s divide once to become 2 2n’s cells (diploid). Each of these new cells would have the complete 46 chromosomes as the parentdoes.
Describe the G2 stage of interphase in mitosis
The cell gets ready to divide, synthesize protein, and grow.
Describe the Prophase stage of interphase in mitosis
Centrioles separate• Spindle apparatus form• Membrane dissolves• Spindle fibers appear• The two chromatids formed condense
Describe the Metaphase of interphase in mitosis
Spindle apparatus attaches chromatids
Describe the Anaphase of interphase in mitosis
The chromatid separates
Describe the Telophase of interphase in mitosis
Spindle apparatus disappears• Nuclear membrane forms• Chromosomes uncoil
Describe the Cytokinesis of interphase in mitosis
The cell divides• Cleavage furrow form
What make Plant Cells’ Division Unique?
Plants lack centrioles; the spindle apparatus is synthesized by microtubules. In addition,plants form a cell plate instead of the cleavage furrow.
What are the products of Meiosis?
Produces haploid cells/ sex cells/ gametes
Describe the Interphase stage of interphase in mitosis
2N sister-chromatids form
Describe the Prophase I stage of Meiosis
• Chromatin condenses• Spindle forms• Nucleus disappears• Each synaptic pair of homologous chromosomes contains four chromatids (tetrads).• Crossing over: The chromatids of homologous chromosomes break at corresponding points and exchange DNA.• After crossing over, sister chromatids are no longer identical due to several process including crossing-over.
Describe the Metaphase I stage of Meiosis
• Homologous pairs (tetrads) align at the equatorial plane and each pair attaches to separate spindle fibers by its kinetochore.
Describe the Anaphase I stage of Meiosis
• The homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite poles known as disjunction• Non disjunction is the failure of the homologous chromosomes to separate
Describe the Telophase I stage of Meiosis
Nuclear membrane forms
Describe the Second Meiotic Division in Meiosis
Meiosis in the second division is not preceded by chromosomal replication. The new cells are haploid not diploid.
What are the purine nucleotides?
Adenine and Guanine
What are the pyrimidine nucleotides?
Cytosine and Thymine
Nucleotides are made up of a phosphate group + a sugar + a base
What is DNA?
DNA is a double-stranded helix, according to the Watson Crick DNA Model. Phosphates make the sides of the ladder, and the bases, make the steps of the ladder. The bases are joined together with H-bonds.
What is RNA?
RNA is made of Uracil instead of Thymine It is single stranded. It is found in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. Ribonucleotides are the basic units of RNA.
What is M-RNA?
M-RNA transcribes the complimentary strand ofthe DNA into an M-RNA strand.
What is T-RNA?
They are found in the cytoplasm, TRNAbrings the amino acids to the ribosomes in aprocess known as translation.
What is R-RNA?
R-RNA has three binding sites to three fit each of the bases on a codon. R-RNA is the abundant type of RNA
What is DNA transcription?
DNA is copied and then it is transcribed into M-RNA. The M-RNA leaves the nucleus afterward and goes into the cytoplasm
What is DNA translation?
M-RNA is converted to Amino Acids
What are the 3 stages of Polypeptide synthesis?
What codon starts the Initiations Stage of Polypeptide synthesis?
It starts at AUG (methionine)
What is the Elongation Stage of Polypeptide synthesis?
Hydrogen bonds form between the codon and the anti-codon.
What is the Termination Stage of Polypeptide synthesis?
Polyribosomes advances three nucleotide bases at a time along the M-RNAIt moves in 5’ – 3’ DirectionTerminates at UAA, UAG, or UGA Disulfide Bond is a bond between two sulfur atoms of two amino acids in the primary structure of protein. It is what determines the tertiary structure as well.
What is Translocation?
Translocation is a rearrangement between nonhomologous chromosomes. Sometimes it can lead to cancer. It is very similar to crossing over,but it happens between nonhomologous chromosomes rather than homologouschromosomes.
What is Chromosomal Abnormalities?
Chromosomal Abnormalities, which can be cancerous, can be caused be severalfactors including: Environment Mutagenic agent X-rays Ultraviolet rays Radioactivity Colchicine Mustard gas
Describe an addition mutation?
Addition Mutation: a mutation that results in the addition of a base
What is a subtraction mutation?
Subtraction Mutation: a mutation thatresults in the subtraction of a nitrogenbase
What is a point utation?
Point Mutation: a mutation that results in one amino acid base being replaced with another, causing adifferent resulting amino acid.
What is a silent mutation ?
Silent Mutation: a mutation that results in the a nitrogen base being switched with another, however, the resulting amino acid is still the same
What is a missense mutation?
Missense Mutation: a mutation that results in a different Amino Acid
What is a nonsense utation?
Nonsense Mutation: a mutation that results in the taking out an important amino acid out, such as a stop codon
What is bacterial transformation?
Foreign chromosomes fragments are incorporated into the bacterial chromosomes
What is bacterial conjugation?
Conjugation is Sexual mating in bacteria. It is the transfer of genes between bacteria that are temporary joined. Antibody resistance can be transferred from one bacterium to theother.
What is bacterial transduction?
Transduction is the process by which parts of the bacterial genes accidently become packaged into a viral genome during a viral infection.
What is bacterial recombination?
It occurs by the breaking and reattaching of adjacent regions of DNA on nonhomologous chromosomes.
Describe the shape of the bacterial plasmid
Bacteria have a circular plasmid
What are epitsomes?
Epitomes are plasmids that are capable of being interrogated into the bacterial genome
What is the direction of replication in bacteria?
Replication goes in the direction of 5’ to 3’ in bacteria
How do bacteria reproduce?
Bacteria usually reproduces through binary fission; asexual
What are the four mechanisms by which the bacterial genome vary?
Tranformation, conjugagtion, transduction and Recombination
Define: Carrying Capacity
Carrying Capacity, k, is the maximum number of organisms a population can support.
Define: Modern Synthesis
Modern Synthesis is a theory that deals with the timing of evolution. It states that evolution had to happen gradually.
Define: Gene Pool
Gene Pool is the entire collection of genes within a given population
Mutation is a change of the DNA sequence in a gene, resulting in a change of trait
Define: Genetic Drift
Genetic Drift is the concept that genetic traits, which did not exist in the original gene pool, can be introduced through mutation. It has no particular tie to environmental conditions. Thus, the random change in gene frequency is unpredictable.
Define: Gene Migration
Gene Migration is the concept that the gene pool may experience a change in frequency if a particular gene simply dies to chance fluctuations.
Define: Hardy Weinberg law of equilibrium
Hardy Weinberg law of equilibrium states that the sum of all possible alleles is one (p + q =1). The frequency of one allele is represented by P, and thefrequency of the other allele is Q. You need to know how to calculate this. We have added a video tutorial for this.
Define: Operon Hypothesis
Operon Hypothesis states that the earth is very old. It initially had no Oxygen. It had ammonia, Hydrogen, methane, and steam.
Define: Cambrian Explosion
Cambrian Explosion is a sudden appearance of a multitude of differentiated animal forms
Hybridization is interbreeding between different species
Define: Homo Erectus
Homo Erectus is the oldest known fossil of the human genus.
Australopithecus has the same size brain as humans.
Cro-Magnons are Homo Sapience, which were thought to have evolved in Africa and then migrated.
Altruism is social behavior where organisms seem to place the needs of the community first before their own.
Define: Differential reproduction
Differential reproduction is a proposal, which states that those individuals within a population that are most adapted to the environment are also the mostlikely to reproduce successfully
Define: Balanced Polymorphism
Balanced Polymorphism is a selection where heterozygote individuals, for these alleles under consideration, have a higher adaptive value thanhomozygous ones. This process is known as Balanced / Stabilizing Selection, which is a process that keeps multiple alleles in the gene pool.
Define: STABILIZING SELECTION
STABILIZING SELECTION is a selection is also known as the Purifying Selection or Balancing Selection. This selection favors the heterozygoteindividuals and thus preventing the loss of any of the alleles. (In this scenario, the intermediate color snakes are most advantageous and thus produce the most offsprings.)
Define: DIRECTIONAL SELECTION
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION is a selection in which one phenotype is favored, which causes a directional change, independent of dominant or recessive allele combinations. (Either the light or the dark snakes is favored, but not both.)
Define: DISRUPTIVE SELECTION
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION is a selection in which both light and dark colors are favored over the intermediate color. This process deals withSympatric speciation.
Define: Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution: convergence occurs when a particular characteristic evolves in two unrelated populations, and thus making the two speciesconverge together. This is in contrast to divergent evolution, where two similar populations grow apart.
Define: Bottleneck effect
Bottleneck effect is a process by which a disaster kills off most of a population, leaving only very few survivals. These survivals can eventuallybecome extinct if they were unable to reproduce. However, they may enhance the population by passing the fittest genes to their offsprings.
Define: Adoptive Radiation
Adoptive Radiation is the differentiating ability of different organisms to adapt to different climates. A prime example of adoptive radiation is the bird of the Galapagos Island. They differentiated to meet the needs of their specific environment. According to this, specific species have radiated into many different species.
Coextension is the process by which one species’ extinction could cause another species’ extension. For example, if a species of snakes arefeeding on a species of rats. If the rats became extinct due to climate changes, then the snake species would become extinct because lack of food. This phenomenon is known as coextension.
Viruses are not living things. They are composed of nucleic acids encompassed inside of a nuclearenvelope.
Retrovirus is a virus that has RNA instead of DNA. It replicates in host via reverse transcription. Inorder to incorporate their genes into theirhost, retrovirus must convert their RNA into DNA. This DNA is incorporated in the host’s genome.
Prions lack genetic code or nucleic acids;this is what differentiates them from viruses.
Describe the kingdom of Plants
Describe the kingdom of Fungi
Describe the kingdom of Animale
Describe the kingdom of protists
EukaryoticSexual or asexual reproductionUnicellular
Describe the kingdom of Monera
Describe the phylum of Porifera
Describe the phylum of Cnidarians
Describe the phylum of Platyhelminthes
Describe the phylum of Nematode
Describe the phylum of Mollusca
Snails and clams
Describe the phylum of Annelida
Segmented worms and earthworms
Describe the phylum of Arthropoda
Spiders and crabs
Describe the phylum of Echinodermata
Star fish cleavage pattern is similar to chordates Radial symmetry Lacks Cephalization (Head) Simple endoskeleton
Describe the phylum of Chordate
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, andmammals Nerve cord Backbone Gill slit/ gas exchange Tail
Describe the phylum of Chondrichthyes
Fish with a cartilaginous endoskeleton
Describe the phylum of Osteichthyes
Fish with a bony Skelton
Describe the phylum of Amphibia
A bony SkeltonPart of their life in water and part onlandNo amniotic egg Ectoderm- temperature change affectsthem significantly. They do not maintaintheir body temperature internally
Describe the phylum of Reptilian
Describe the phylum of Aves
Spindle shaped body with a head, neck, trunk,and tail
Describe the phylum of Mammalia
Body covered with hair glandsInternal fertilization Sweat glands Mammary glands Complex brain Teeth Lungs with a diaphragm Mammals are divided into placentamarsupials and Monotremes (egg laying)
Describe the phylum of Arthropods
Exoskeleton• Incomplete circulatory system
Describe the phylum of Agatha
No jaws fish
Describe the phylum of Amphibians
They do not have an amniotic egg, and thusthey must go to the water to reproduce.
Describe the phylum of Amniotes
These animals have an amniotic egg and thusthese animals are capable of living on land.
Describe the phylum of Vertebrate
• Complete Skelton• Axial Skelton (head and backbone)• Appendicular skeleton (legs and arms)
Epithelial tissue include skin, lining of the intestine
Connective tissue include ligaments, tendons
Muscle tissue include smooth, skeletal, and cardiac
Cartilage tissue: reduces friction between bones, ears, and nose
Adipose Tissues are fat storage, found under the skin and around organs. This iswhere fat is stored
Nerve tissues include brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglion (nerve tissues
Blood tissue includes different blood cells floating in plasma
Fission: the cell wall grows inward along the midline of the cell, producing identical sets of genetic information.
Budding: The unequal cytokinesis during budding produces smaller but genetically identical organisms. The new organisms may separate from the parent immediately or it can be attached for a while.
Regeneration: The regrowth of an injured body part as long as the central disk ispresent.
Parthenogenesis: An unfertilized egg develops into an adult organism.
Gonads are where the gametes are produced Male: Testes Female: Ovaries
Hermaphrodites are organisms that have reproductive organs that possess characteristics of both males and females.
Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm production that occurs in the seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonium produces four haploid sperm cells. The sperm is made up of a head (where the nucleus is present) and a flagellum (wherethe mitochondria are present).
Oogenesis is the process of female gametes production that occurs in the ovaries.One diploid sex cell goes under meiosis to produce ONE single, mature egg.
• External fertilization occurs in vertebrates that live in water. The female lays the egg, and the male puts the sperm in the vicinity.
Internal fertilization occurs in terrestrial vertebrates. This is the mostsuccessful way of reproduction
The menstrual Cycle is controlled by the hypothalamus. The main three hormonesinvolved are the FSH, LH, and GnRh. The Anterior Pituitary gland produces all of these three hormones. At the beginning of the cycle, LH starts increasing. Once LH is at its peak, then ovulation takes place. Ovulation results in the creation of a Corpus Luteum, which secrets Progesterone and Estrogen. These two hormones inhibit the hypothalamus and keep it from producing FSH + LH. After ovulation, the Corpus Luteum signals foran increased production of Progesterone and Estrogen. The increase of Progesterone would have reversal negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus resulting in the decrease of Progesterone. The drop in Progesterone starts the menstruation by breaking down the endometrium or the uterus walls.
Fertilization is the process by which a sperm fertilizes the egg. This process can only happen within 12-24 hours after ovulation.
• Cleavage is series of rapid meiotic divisions.• The number of cells increase without increasing the protoplasm•The ratio, eventually, of surface to volume increases within the cell. Thisimproves gas and nutrient exchange.• Within the first 72 hours, three cleavages form.• The eight celled individual is transferred to the uterus at the completion of the first 72 hours
• The blastula becomes instead of one layer three layers called gastrula.• These three layers then differentiate
Rudimentary nervous system begins to develop Notochord develops Neural crest cells develops
o Major organs begin to developo Heart start beatingo Eyes, gonads, limbs, and liver start to formo The Cartilaginous Skelton developso First bones developso Brain is fairly developed
o Fetus begins to moveo The fetus face appears humano Its toes and fingers elongate
Further brain developmento Fetus becomes less active as he/she occupies most of the space
o The cervix thins out and dilateso The amniotic sac ruptureso During the final stage, the uterus contracts to expel the placenta andthe umbilical cord.
Function of the circulatorySystem:
1. Transport of gas2. Transport of nutrientsand wastes
B cells have three main functions
Recognize alert proteins on the surface of cell2. Bonds to a specific antigen3. Make antibodies memory cells.
What is the pathway of air entering the body during breathing?
Involuntaryo Line most internal organs
The only cardiac muscle is the Hearto Involuntaryo Beatso Branched endings in cardiac muscle that interlock, which prevents muscle fiber tearingo Electric impulses travel causing contractions of the hearto Aorta: largest arteries in the body; it extends from the left Ventricle.o Ventricle is the part of the heart that collects and expels blood from the atrium. The left ventricle carries Oxygenated blood, while the right one carries the deoxygenated blood.o Atrium is the part of the heart, where blood enters the heart and returns to heart
Sodium- potassium resting potential
Potassium is present in a larger quantity on the inside of the cell membrane. Potassium makes the membrane more positive, while Sodium makes the membrane more negative. The resting potential is at -70, while the threshold potential is at -55.Sodium and Potassium move in and out of the cell and thus can induce a resting potential, threshold, or action potential.
Muscle action potential
How do muscles utilize action potential? There are three proteins that affect Action Potential: Troponin, Actin, and Myosin. Think of Troponin as a fence between Myosin and Actin that prevents them from bonding with each other. Calcium comes andattaches to troponin and thus removes it out of the way. Now, Myosin is able to form a bridge with Actin. Once, they are bonded together, or a bridge is formed, an ATP molecule can be used to break the bridge up, whenever needed. In reversal, the energy of ATP can allow the Myosin to “power strike” the Actin and thus reattach.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Ingestion: food intakeDigestion: the breakdown of foodEgestion: The rid of food not used
1. The oral cavity2. The esophagus3. The stomach4. Pyloric Sphincter5. The small intestine (the duodenum)6. The liver7. The large intestine8. Rectum9. Anus
Camels are examples of Ruminants. These animals consume a large amount of vegetation’s and store them into several chambers in the stomach. They also have the ability to regurgitate their food.
Cud: Whenever the chewed vegetation is regurgitated up again, it is called cud.
Crop: an organ that stores food until it is processed for absorption
What is the function of the EXECRATORY SYSTEM?
Function: producing and filtering waste
What is the function of the kidneys ?
The kidneys filter metabolic wastes from the blood and excrete them to the urinary tract. Urine: 95% water and the rest includes:o Urea: broken proteinso Uric acid: formed frombreaking of nucleicacidso Creatinine: byproducts of muscle contractions
What is the function of the Liver?
Liver: It produces bile, which aids in the breaking down of nitrogenous bases. It aids in digesting fats and carries broken down pigments and chemicals (pollutants and medications). It, then, secretes these chemicals to the small intestine. Eventually, they are passed to the large intestine, where they are made into feces.
What is the function of the Lungs?
Lung: exchange of gas
What is the function of the pancreas?
The pancreas and Gall Bladder produce enzymes into the small intestine for final digestion.
What is the function of the Gall Bladder?
The pancreas and Gall Bladder produce enzymes into the small intestine for final digestion.
What is Pyloric Sphincter?
The watery soap of nutrient passes through the Pyloric Sphincter to get to the small intestine.
What is peristalsis?
The food goes from the mouth to the stomach by peristalsis, which are contractions of the esophagus that helps to move the food down.
Amylase is the enzyme in saliva that helps to break down thefood
Amylase is the enzyme in saliva that helps to break down the food
Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands
Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands
What is the Cretaceous Period best known for?
Cretaceous: dinosaurs and conifers
What is Triassic Period best known for?
Triassic: desert and reptiles
What is Permian Period best known for?
Permian: extinction of dinosaurs
What is Carboniferous Period best known for?
Carboniferous: Carbon, amphibians
What is Devonian Period best known for?
Devonian: plants started
What is Cambrian Period best known for?
Cambrian: expansion of life
What is Proterozoic Period best known for?
What is Paleozoic Period best known for?
What is Mesozoic Period best known for?
In energy cycles, what is assimilation ?
Assimilation is how living things get energy from a specific cycle (how theybenefit from the cycle).
In energy cycles, what is reservoirs
Reservoirs is where does the energy/element originate
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is nitrogen fixation ?
Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of N2 to NO2 or NO3. This is done by Rhizobium and Cyanobacteria
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is nitrification ?
Nitrification is the oxidation of Ammonia (NH4) to NO2 and NO3.
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is denitrification ?
Denitrification returns Nitrogen back into the cycle.
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is ammonification ?
Ammonification is the conversion of N2 to Ammonia by bacteria and fungi.
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is the assimilation?
Assimilation= Plants gain Nitrogen from the soil, animals gain Nitrogen from eating plants
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is the release?
Release= decomposition releases Nitrogen back into the atmosphere
In the Nitrogen Cycle, what is the reservoirs?
Reservoirs = rocks
In the Carbon Cycle, what is the reservoirs ?
Reservoirs: atmosphere (CO2), fossil fuels, organic material, photosynthesis, decomposition, and diffusions of oceanic Carbon
In the Carbon Cycle, what is the assimilation?
Assimilation: photosynthesis, animal consumption of plants
In the Carbon Cycle, what is the release?
Release: respiration, decomposition, combustion
What is the difference between population and community?
Population is a group of one species living in a given area, whereas a community is all the species in a given area.
What is the difference between habitat and niche ?
Habitat is the physical and chemical surrounding that a species live in, whereas a niche is the sum of activities and relations in which a species engage; what are these organisms doing in that habitat
What is biomass ?
Biomass decreases as you go up the pyramid. Biomass is any resource derived from a living thing or recently living thing. A good example of biomass is wood. We take wood from living trees or recently living trees. We can take many resources from producers, but that availability decrease as you go up the pyramid.
What is productivity ?
Productivity is the efficiency of energy production. It decreases as you go up the pyramid. The sun is the main source of energy. Even though photosynthesis is efficient by only 1%, producers have the most energy out of the other trophiclevels. So if photosynthesis is efficient by about 1%, then primary consumer would get a fraction of that energy provided to producers, and secondary consumers would get even less, and so on.
What is R-selection?
R-selection are in unstable environments and thus are density dependent. These living things are usually small and does not need a lot of energy. They reproduce only once in their lifetime but they produce a lot of offsprings at once. These offspring reach maturity quickly. They have short life expectancy. Most of the individuals die, only few survives.
What is k-selection ?
k-selection are in stable environments and thus are density independent. These living things are usually large and needs a lot of energy. They reproduce many times in their lifetime but they produce a one/few offspring at once. These offspring reach maturity slowly. They have long life expectancy. Most individuals live to near the maximum life span.
What is J: Exponential Growth?
J: Exponential (Unrestricted) Growth increase with no limits
What is S: Logistic Growth?
S: Logistic Growth: limiting factors limit the rate of growth, causing it to stabilize atsome point.
What is succession ?
Succession is a gradual long-term change in an altered ecosystem. The engine ofsuccession is the impact of established species on the environment- so it is usuallygradual, but it can be sudden too like in the case of natural disasters.
What is secondary succession?
On the other hand, in a secondary succession, the soil is present. For example, in wildfires, the tall trees are destroyed, but usually the soil survives.
What is primary succession ?
Primary succession happens when the soil is notpresent, and the first organisms (pioneer organisms) produced in the community areautotrophs. For example, if a volcano eruption destroys a community. The lava woulddestroy the soil in this community.
What is the main characteristics of the Benthic Biome?
Benthic: deep; lowest level at the ocean’s floor
What is the main characteristics of the Nitric Biome?
Nitric: coastal water: sub littoral zone edge of continental shelf/ well Oxygenated water.
What is the main characteristics of the Desert Biome?
DesertClimate: Very hot days; cool nightsSoil: poor, but rich mineral soilPlants: Catci and shrubsAnimals: rodents, snakes, lizards
What is the main characteristics of the Tundra Biome?
TundraClimate: Very, cold harsh winters; cool summersSoil: poorPlants: grasses, wildlowers, mosses, ...Animals: arctic foxes, snowhoe, hares, owl, hawks, rodents
What is the main characteristics of the Grassland Biome?
GrasslandClimate: cool in winters; hot in summersSoil: richPlants: grasses and shrubsAnimals: lions and zebras
What is the main characteristics of the Deciduous Forest Biome?
Deciduous ForestClimate: mild summers; cool wintersSoil: rich with a lot of clayPlants: hardwood such as oak and maplesAnimals: wolves, deers, birds, .....
What is the main characteristics of the Taiga Biome?
TaigaClimate: very cold winters; cool summersSoil: acidic, mineral poor soilPlants: mostly spurce, fir, and evergreensAnimals: rodents, snowshoe, hares,....
What is the main characteristics of the Tropical Rainforest Biome?
Tropical RainforestClimate: hot all year round with a lot of rainSoil: nutient poor soilgreatest diversity among plants and animals.
What is the largest amount of fresh water used in?
FRESH WATER: We use the largest amount of fresh water in agriculture
what are the primary pollutants that cause acid rain?
ACID RAIN: Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide are the primary pollutants causing acid rain.
Why is carbon monoxide toxic?
TOXICATION: Carbon monoxide has the ability to bind to hemoglobin. Research has shown that it is involved in inflammatory responses.
What are some ways human impact the environment negatively?
Fresh water, acid rain, and toxication
What is electrophoresis?
ELECTROPHORESIS: The migration of charged colloidal particles or molecules through a solution under the influence of an applied electric field usually provided by immersed electrode. A method of separating substances, especially proteins, and analyzing molecular structure based on the rate of movement of each component in a colloidal suspension while under the influence of an electric field (The Free Dictionary).
What is Bioinformatics?
BIOINFORMATICS is a large database of anything that deals with science
What is PCR?
PCR is technology that makes copies of target DNA. It can recognize a specific gene and replicate it. It uses heat to separate the double stranded DNA. Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA strands used during PCR.
What are angiosperms?
Angiosperms: flowering plants that have seeds enclosed in the ovary
What is the sepal?
Sepal: leaves that are directly below the petals of a flower, usually in the calyx of a flower
What is the petal?
Petal: one of the often-colored segments of the corolla of a flower
What is the anther?
Anther: the location of the microspore mother cell located (pollen)
What is the stamen?
Stamen: male structure
What is the pollen grain?
Pollen grain originates in the anther. During pollination, it sticks to stigma on the female nucleus.
What is the pollen tube?
Pollen tube burrows into the style, during pollination, in order to be able to transport the pollen to egg.
What is the ovule?
Ovule is the location where fertilization actually happens, where the sperm joins the egg.
What is the shoot apex?
Shoot Apex is made up of meristem tissue, which is capable of being differentiated into different cells.
What is the meristem?
Meristem: undifferentiated cells capable of growth and specialization
What is the terminal bud?
Terminal bud: this is the tissue that give rise to a new set of leaves located on the shoot apex
What are terminal bud scar?
Terminal bud scar: the previous years’ terminal buds
What reproductive part if the plant is the fruit?
Fruit is a matured ovary
What are stem nodes?
Stem nodes: s tissue that give rise to new leaves
What are lateral buds?
Lateral buds: leaves begin as lateral buds
What is the internode?
Internode: space between nodes
What is the xylem?
Xylem: transports water
What is the phloem?
Phloem is made up of sieve cells, which arespecialized in transporting nutrients. These sievecells react to pressure within the stem to raisewater from lower parts of the plant to higher ones.
What is the cuticle?
Cuticle keeps the leaves moist
What is the palisade layer?
Palisade layer: uppermost epidermis in a leave,where all the chloroplasts are located
What are vascular bundles ?
Vascular bundles are what transports sugar
What is the spongy layer?
Spongy layer is the next layer after the palisade. It is made up of parenchyma cells.
What are guard cells?
Guard cells is what guards the stomata
What is the stomata?
Stomata are an opening in the leaves that allows moister to come in and out duringphotosynthesis.
What are primary roots?
Primary roots are the roots that grow downward not sideways.
What are later roots?
Later roots are roots that extend horizontally
What are root caps?
Root caps are the tips of roots, which are made up of dead cells.
What is the meristematic region?
Meristematic region is a region of the undifferentiated cells.
What is the elongation region?
Elongation region is a region where plant cells differentiate and grow.
What is the maturation region?
Maturation region is a region signified by where the epidermis produces root hair
What are cotyledons?
Cotyledons: first leaves: these baby leaves photosynthesize from within the seed even prior to germination.
What is the cortex?
Cortex is where the large parenchyma cells are found. The cortex region is found between the endodermal and the epidermal.
What is the parenchyma?
Parenchymas are thin walled, loosely packed cells.
What is the vascular cylinder?
Vascular cylinder is the region where the xylem and phloem are located in the roots.
What are terminal buds?
Terminal buds are responsible for the elongation of the stem
What is the tracheophyte?
Tracheophyte is another name for vascular plants
What are perennial plants?
Perennial Plants survive for many years, but some take more than one season to mature. At maturity, perennials will produce seeds and fruit or flowers.
What are annual plants?
Annual plants complete their life cycle (germinate, flower, produce seed and die) in one season. They must be replaced every year. Some examples include geraniums, impatiens, zinnias, marigolds, petunias, and pansies.
What are C4 plants?
C4 plants need to find a mechanism to prevent RuBP from binding to Oxygen instead ofCarbon. Therefore, instead of using RuBP, these plants use PEP. This way they can closetheir stomata since there is no Oxygen being released, prevent loss of water, and in thesame time, efficiently binds only to Carbon.d
What are CAM Plants?
All CO2 is collected at night and fixed by PEP using the same process used by C4 plants.
What is the Light Reaction?
Light is absorbed by chlorophyll pigmentThe light splits H2O into H+ and OxygenOxygen is released, and the H+ is used later in the Calvin CyclePhotolysis produces energy to be used during the Calvin cycle
What is the Dark Reaction/ Calvin Cycle?
H2O + CO2 glucoseRuBP or PEP fixes Carbon
Plants need different elements/ hormones to perform different functions. What is Nirtogen used for?
Plants use Nitrogen to aid them in taking in more energy from the sun.
How do plants use Potassium?
Potassium aids in stomata’s intake and release of water
How do plants use Magnesium?
Magnesium is found in the chloroplast and aids in photosynthesis. Plants that are short in Magnesium are usually discolored purple.
How do plants use Ascorbic Acid?
Ascorbic acid controls the opening and the closing of stomata, growth of winter buds, and regulation of the dormant states.
How do plants use Gibberellin?
Gibberellin: a hormone involved in cell division anddifferentiation. It is significantly involved with the axillary buds.
What are spore?
Spore (N): haploid, reproductive cells
What is the gametophyte generation?
Gametophyte: haploid, gives rise to gametes.