Biomechanics Flashcards Preview

PTRS 845 Midterm > Biomechanics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biomechanics Deck (37):
1

Location: Where the following can be palpated

1. Spinous Process

2. Transverse Process

3. Facets Joints

4. Vertebral bodies

1. C/T/L-Spine

2. C/T-Spine

3. C/T/L-Spine

4. C-Spine

2

Term: Area bridging the superior and inferior articular processes

Pars Interarticularis

3

Functions: Pars Interarticularis 

Important for load transfer

4

2 Types of Joints in the Spine

1. Facet Joints (posterior column)

2. Intervertebral (anterior column)

5

Term: a disc, 2 vertebral bodies, 2 facet joints, and surrounding soft tissue

Motion segment

6

Term: The gliding movement of one vertebra across the surface of the other

Translation

7

Spinal Ligament: 

- Entire length of spine anterior to vertebral bodies

- Prevenets hyperextension

- Innervated with sensory nerves

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

8

Attachment: Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

Attached more to vertebral bodies than discs

9

Bulging Disc: Less common and less painful

Anterior Disc Bulge

10

Spinal Ligament: 

- Runs the entire length of the spine

- Fans out across discs

- Prevents posterior disc protrusion

Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

11

Attachment: Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

Attached primarily to discs, not bodies

12

Spinal Ligament:

- Covers posterior neural arch and 2 lamina

- Yellow in appearance (due to being 80% elastin)

- Protects spinal cord

- Limits flexion

Ligamentum Flavum

13

Attachment: Ligamentum Flavum

Attaches to anterior facet joint 

14

Describe the effect of degenerative changes in ligamentum flavum

Degenerative changes lead to decreased elasticity which allows to ligament to buckle and compress the spinal cord roots

15

Spinal Ligament:

- Segmental ligament

- Gives segmental stability

Intraspinous ligament

16

Spinal Ligament:

- Thick and cord like

- Has transverse fibers that attach segmentally

- At greatest risk for injury

Supraspinous Ligament

17

Spinal Ligament: 

- Primary ligament of the lumbopelvic region

- Innervated

- Potential source of pain

Iliolumbar Ligament

18

Attachment: Iliolumbar Ligament

From L4 transverse processes/vertebrae to ilium

19

Joint Type: Facet Joint

Synovial Joint (Thus can experience arthritic changes and cause pain)

20

Facet Joint Orientation 

1. C-spine

2. T-spine

3. L-spine

4. L5-S1

1. 45 from horizontal

2. coronal or 90 from horizontal

3. sagittal

4. coronal

21

List the planes in amount of rotation allowed (from most to least)

Horizontal > Coronal > Sagittal

22

Thoracic Facet Joint Orientation in the Coronal Plane

1. Upper 

2. Middle

3. Lower

1. 60

2. 90

3. 0

23

Motions Allowed:

1. C-spine

2. T-spine

3. L-spine

1. Some rotation and translation

2. Allows rotation; prevents AP translation

3. Allow AP translation; prevents rotation 

24

Spinal Segments: Accounts for 50% of rotation in C-spine

C1-C2

25

Structure: Defines movement in the spine

Top vertebrae

26

Structure: Defines rotation in the spine

Anterior vertebral body (spinous process does opposite)

27

Describe the Segmental Motion during Spine Flexion

Facets glide superiorly and anteriorly 

Anterior sagittal rotation and translation occurs

Foramen and facets are opened

28

Describe the Mechanics of Flexion 

Abs are used to initiate flexion

Beyond 40 degrees Gravity takes over

The abs no longer need to contract as the passive structures (ligaments, capsules, fascia) support flexion

NO eccentric contraction of extensors 

29

Describe the Segmental Motion during Extension 

Facets glide posterior and inferior

Posterior sagital rotation and minimal translation occurs

Facets close and foramen narrow 

30

Describe the Mechanics of Extension 

Back extensors initiate and maintain extension 

Abdominals work eccentrically and aid extensors

31

Describe the effect of lordosis on the facet joints

Makes them WB joints

32

Limiters to Rotation:

1st

2nd

3rd

1st = contralateral facet closing

2nd = ipsilateral facet overstretching the capsule

3rd = disc 

33

Describe the Facet Movement with SB

Ipsilateral facet glides inferiorly (extends)

Contralateral facet glides superiorly (flexes)

34

Neutral Spine Coupling: C-spine

SB and rotation coupled in SAME direction

35

Neutral Spine Coupling: T-Spine

Above T9: SB and rotation coupled in SAME direction

Below T9: SB and rotation coupled in OPPOSITE direction

36

Neutral Spine Coupling: L-Spine

SB and rotation coupled in the OPPOSITE direction

37

Flexed/Extended Spine Coupling: L-Spine

SB and rotation coupled in the SAME direction