Biomechanics And Kinesiology - Glossary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biomechanics And Kinesiology - Glossary Deck (78):
1

Acceleration

- change in velocity of a body over time, expressed in linear and angular terms

2

Accessory movements

- slight, passive, nonvolitional movements allowed in most joints

3

Active force

- push or pull generated by stimulated muscle

4

Active movement

- motion caused by stimulated muscle

5

Agonist muscle

- muscle or muscle group that is most directly related to the initiation and execution of a particular movement

6

Anatomic position

- the generally agreed on the reference position of the body used to describe the location and movements of its parts
- person is standing fully upright, looking forward, arms resting by the side and the palms facing forwards

7

Angle-of-insertion

- angle formed between a tendon of a muscle and the long axis of the bone into which it inserts

8

Antagonist muscle

- muscle or muscle group that has the action opposite to a particular agonist muscle

9

Arthrokinematics

- motions of roll, slide, and spin that occur between curved articular surfaces of joints

10

Axial rotation

- angular motion of an object in a direction perpendicular to its longitudinal axis

11

Axis of rotation

- an imaginary lone extending through a joint around which rotation occurs

12

Bending

- effect of a force that deforms a material at right angles to its long axis
- bent tissue is compressed on its concave side and placed under tension on its convex side

13

Center of mass

- point at the exact center of an object's mass

14

Close-packed position

- unique postion of most joints of the body where the articular surfaces are most congruent and the ligaments are maximally taut

15

Compliance

- the inverse of stiffness

16

Compression

- a force, applied perpendicularly to the contact surface, that pushes or pulls one object directly against another

17

Concentric activation

- activated muscle that shortens as it produces a pulling force

18

Creep

- a progressive strain of a material when exposed to a constant load over time

19

Degrees of freedom

- number of independent directions of movements allowed at a joint

20

Displacement

- change in the linear or angular position of an object

21

Distal-on-proximal segment kinematics

- type of movement in which the distal segment of a joint rotates relative to a fixed proximal segment

22

Distraction

- a force, applied perpendicularly to the contact surface, that pushes or pulls one object directly away from another

23

Eccentric activation

- activated muscle that is producing a pulling force while being elongated by another more dominant force

24

Elasticity

- property of a material demonstrated by its ability to return to its original length after the removal of a deforming force

25

External force

- push or pull produced by sources located outside the body

26

External moment arm

- perpendicular distance between an axis of rotation and the external force

27

External torque

- product of an external force and its external moment arm

28

Force

- a push or pull that produces, arrests, or modifies a motion

29

Force-couple

- two or more muscles acting in different linear directions, but producing a torque in the same rotary direction

30

Force of gravity

- potential acceleration of a body toward the center of the earth as a result of gravity

31

Friction

- resistance to movement between two contacting surfaces

32

Internal force

- push or pull produces by a structure located within the body

33

Internal moment arm

- perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the internal force

34

Internal torque

- product of an internal force and its internal moment arm

35

Isometric activation

- activated muscle that maintains a constant length as it produces a pulling force

36

Joint reaction force

- force that exists at a joint, developed in reaction to the net effect of internal and external forces

37

Kinematics

- branch of mechanics that describes the motion of a body, without regard to the forces or torques that may produce motion

38

Kinematic chain

- series of articulated segmented links

39

Kinetics

- branch of mechanics that describes the effect of forces and torques on the body

40

Leverage

- relative moment arm length possessed by a particular force

41

Line of force

- direction and orientation of a muscle's force

42

Line of gravity

- direction and orientation of the gravitational pull on a body

43

Load

- the application of a force to a body

44

Longitudinal body

- axis that extends within and parallel to a long bone or body segment

45

Loose-packed position

- positions of most synovial joints of the body in which the articular surfaces are least congruent

46

Mass

- quantity of matter in an object

47

Mechanical advantage

- ratio of the internal moment arm to the external moment arm

48

Moment arm

- perpendicular distance between an axis of rotation and the line of force

49

Muscle action

- potential of a muscle to produce a torque within a particular plane of motion and rotation direction
- flexion, extension, pronation and supination

50

Osteokinematics

- motion of bones relative to the three cardinal, or principle, planes

51

Passive force

- push or pull generated by sources other than stimulated muscle

52

Passive movement

- motion produced by a source other than activated muscle

53

Plasticity

- property of a material demonstrated by remaining permanently deformed after the removal of a force

54

Pressure

- force divided by a surface area

55

Productive antagonism

- low-level tension within stretched connective tissue performs a useful function

56

Proximal-on-distal segment kinematics

- type of movement in which the proximal segment of a joint rotates relative to a fixed distal segment

57

Roll

- when multiple points on one rotating articular surface contact multiple points on another articular surface

58

Rotation

- angular motion in which a rigid body moves in a circular path around a pivot point or an axis of rotation

59

Scalar

- quantity that is completely specified by its magnitude and has no direction

60

Segment

- any part of a body or limb

61

Shear

- a force produced as two compressed objects slide past each other in opposite directions

62

Shock absorption

- the act of dissipating a force

63

Slide

- when a single point on one articular surface contacts multiple points on another articular surface

64

Spin

- when a single point on one articular surface rotates on a single point on another articular surface

65

Static linear equilibrium

- state of a body at rest in which the sum of all forces is equal to zero

66

Static rotary equilibrium

- state of a body at rest in which the sum of all torques is equal to zero

67

Stiffness

- ratio of stress to strain within an elastic material

68

Strain

- ratio of a tissue's deformed length to its original length

69

Stress

- force generated as a tissue resists deformation, divided by its cross-sectional area

70

Synergists

- two or more muscles that cooperate to execute a particular movement

71

Tension

- application of one or more forces that pulls apart or separates a material

72

Torque

- a force multiplied by its moment arm

73

Torsion

- application of a force that twists a material around its longitudinal axis

74

Translation

- linear motion in which all parts of a rigid body move parallel to and in the same direction as every other point in the body

75

Vector

- quantity that is completely specified by its magnitude and direction

76

Velocity

- change in position of a body over time

77

Viscoelasticity

- property of a material expressed by a changing stress-strain relationship over time

78

Weight

- gravitational force acting on mass