# Biomechanics Final Flashcards Preview

## Biomechanics: Exam 1 & 2 > Biomechanics Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biomechanics Final Deck (159)
0
Q

What are the three points in space that determine plane?

A
• sagittal
• frontal (coronal)
• transverse (axial)
1
Q

What is a flat surface determined by the position of three points in space?

A

Plane

2
Q

What type of motion is motion in which all points of a rigid body move parallel to a fixed plane (two dimensional movement)?

A

Plane motion

3
Q

Which motions are occurring in the sagittal plane?

A
• flexion

- extension

4
Q

Which motions are occurring in the frontal (coronal) plane?

A
• right lateral flexion

- left lateral flexion

5
Q

Which motion is occurring in the transverse (axial) plane?

A

-rotation

6
Q

Which type of motion is motion in which all points of a rigid body do not move in a single plane (3 dimensional movement)

A

Out of plane motion

7
Q

What is a line around which rotary movement takes place or along which translation occurs?

A

Axis

8
Q

Which direction would a line run if it were in the X-axis?

A

a line passing horizontally from side to side

9
Q

The X-axis is referred to as the “_______” or “_______” axis.

A

“frontal” or “coronal”

10
Q

Movement around the X-axis is in which plane?

A

the sagittal plane

11
Q

The Y-axis is a line that runs…

A

perpendicular to the ground

12
Q

The Y-axis is referred to as the “_______” or “________” axis.

A

“longitudinal” or “vertical”

13
Q

Movement around the Y-axis is in the…

A

transverse or axial plane

14
Q

The Z-axis is a line passing…..

A

horizontally back to front

15
Q

The Z-axis is referred to as the “______” axis

A

“sagittal”

16
Q

Movement around the Z-axis is in the….

A

frontal or coronal plane

17
Q

What are the number of ways in which a body can move (for example: one degree of freedom would be translation or rotation about one axis) termed?

A

Degrees of freedom

18
Q

Spinal segments exhibit 6 degrees of freedom, those six degrees of freedom are what?

A
• 3 translations

- 3 rotations

19
Q

When a rigid body moves in a plane, at every instant there is a point in the body or some hypothetical extension of it that does not move; what term is being described?

A

Instantaneous Axis of Rotation (IAR)

20
Q

An axis perpendicular to the plane of motion and passing through that point is the what for that motion, at that instant?

A

instantaneous axis (center) of rotation (IAR)

21
Q

Which term is used to describe any vertebral motion in a two dimensional plane?

A

IAR

22
Q

As different force vectors are applied to a vertebra, they may cause a shift in the IAR which will dictate what for that motion segment?

A

the pattern of deformation

23
Q

T/F: The IAR is different for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal segments but remains the same under changing loads.

A

FALSE!!! The IAR is different for cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal segments and is different under changing loads

24
Q

What is the functional unit of the spine and has the following characteristics?
• smallest spinal segment exhibiting biomechanical characteristics similar to those of the entire spine
• two adjacent vertebrae and their interconnecting disc, joints, capsule and ligaments
• six degrees of freedom

A

Motion segment

25
Q

What is an important ligament in motion segment?

A

Capsular ligament

26
Q

What are 3 articulations that are important in motion segment?

A
• Joint space of the zygapophyseal joint
• Capsule of the zygapophyseal joint
• Superior articular facets
27
Q

What type of motion is consistent association of one motion (translation or rotation) about one axis with another motion about a second axis
• one motion cannot be produced without the other
• two motions occurring at the same time along two different axes

A

Coupled motion

28
Q

What type of joint position is described by the following?
• joint capsule and ligaments are most relaxed
• maximum joint play is possible
• articulating surfaces are maximally separated
• position used for traction or joint mobilization

A

Loose-packed joint position

29
Q

What is the facet joint loose-packed position?

A

half way between flexion and tension

30
Q

What joint position is described by the following?
• the capsule and ligaments maximally tightened
• there is no joint play
• there is maximal contact between the articular surfaces

A

Closed-packed joint position

31
Q

What is the facet joint closed-packed position?

A

extension

32
Q

Which portion of the occiput has the following characteristics?

• face laterally and inferiorly
• form convex rockers
• sit in concave surface of superior articular facet of C1
A

Condyles

33
Q

Which part of the atlas (C1) has the following characteristics?

• concave surface
• face medially and superiorly
• compliment condyles
• allow occipital condyles to rock
A

Superior articular facets

34
Q

In CO-C1 Flexion and Extension, occiput glides _______ (flexion) and rolls _______ (extension)?

A

posteriorly; anteriorly

35
Q

The greatest range of motion in CO-C, excursion is __° _____ to __° _____.

A

10° flexion; 25°extension

36
Q

In CO-C1 Lateral Flexion, occiput rolls on side of ______ ______ and glides on which side? What is the range of motion on each side?

A

lateral flexion; on opposite side

range of motion 5°each side (minimal)

37
Q

In CO-C1 Rotation, occiput glides ______ on side of rotation and ________ on side opposite rotation.

A

posteriorly; anteriorly

38
Q

CO-C1 rotation is limited by which ligament?

A

alar ligament

39
Q

What is the range of motion for CO-C1 rotation?

A

5°each side (minimal)

40
Q

The C1-C2 (Atlas-Axis) joint consists of which 3 joint types?

A

two facet joints plus the atlas-odontoid joint

41
Q

The planes of facet joints of C1-C2 are mostly _______.

A

horizontal

42
Q

The inferior facets of C1 are slightly _______ and face which direction?

A

convex; inferior and medially

43
Q

The superior facets of C2 are slightly ______ and face which direction?

A

convex; superiorly and laterally

44
Q

What is the synovial joint between odontoid and anterior arch of atlas (C1)?

A

Atlas-odontoid joint

45
Q

Which ligament courses around posterior aspect of odontoid?

A

transverse ligament

46
Q

With C1-C2 Flexion and Extension, in flexion, C1 articular surfaces glide ________ (minimal) and in extension, C1 articular surfaces glide ________ (minimal)

A

posteriorly; anteriorly

47
Q

C1-C2 Lateral Flexion has limited active range of motion, what is the degree of motion?

A

5°each side (minimal)

48
Q

Articular surfaces of C1 glide (translate) on articular surfaces of C2 toward which side?

A

the side of lateral flexion

49
Q

T/F: C1-C2 Rotation is very mobile in rotation and accounts for approximately half of cervical rotation.

A

True

50
Q

C1 rotates around odontoid in which plane?

A

horizontal plane

51
Q

C1 articular surface glides _______ on the side of rotation and _______ on the side opposite rotation.

A

posterior; anterior

52
Q

In C1-C2 rotation, range of motion averages __° each side; the first __°of cervical rotation occur exclusively at C1-C2.

A

40°; 25°

53
Q

C1 pivots around which axis in center of odontoid?

A

vertical

54
Q

C2 Flexion-Extension is primarily _____

A

translation

55
Q

In C1-C2 flexion/extension which do the following characteristics describe?

• anterior disc compression … posterior distraction
• facets glide apart producing stretching and joint gapping
A

Flexion

56
Q

In C1-C2 flexion/extension which do the following characteristics describe?

• anterior disc distraction … posterior compression
• facets approximate … compression at inferior margins
A

extension

57
Q

T/F: In lower cervical biomechanics (C3-C7), the design is consistent from C3 to C7

A

True

58
Q

T/F: In lower cervical biomechanics (C3-C7) the vertebral body wider A-P than transversely

A

FALSE!!! In lower cervical biomechanics (C3-C7) the vertebral body wider transversely than A-P

59
Q

What is the purpose of the transverse foramen in C3-C7?

A

Opening for the vertebral artery

60
Q

In lower cervical biomechanics (C3-C7) articular facets are a _____°angle with the transverse (horizontal) plane.

A

45°

61
Q

In lower cervical biomechanics, articular facets are ______ in frontal (coronal) plane and the articular surface is nearly flat.

A

parallel

62
Q

In lower cervical biomechanics (C3-C7) what is the term for interbody joints or uncovertebral joints?

A

Joints of Luschka

63
Q

At what age do the Joints of Luschka form? What age are they complete?

A

Form age 6-9 and are completed by age 18

64
Q

What is a minor purpose of the Joints of Lushka?

A

limit lateral flexion to only a few degrees

65
Q

The Joints of Lushka serve as guides to couple which type of flexion with which other motion (coupled motion)?

A

lateral flexion; rotation

66
Q

Which curve is a lordotic curve of 20°-50° (average is 45°) that begins C1 and extends to C7?

A

Cervical Curve

67
Q

T/F: Facet and disc planes determine cervical curve and secondary cervical curve develops in response to upright posture

A

True

68
Q

T/F: Cervical Disc (C3-C7), disc height-to-body height ratio 2:5 … allows for greater ROM in cervicals

A

True

69
Q

What constitutes 25% of height of cervical curve?

A

Cervical discs

70
Q

Cervical discs are higher anteriorly which contributes to what form of the cervicals?

A

cervical lordosis

71
Q

The nucleus pulposus slightly ______ to center

A

posterior

72
Q

In lower cervical flexion and extension (C3-C7), flexion and extension predominate over other motions; the average range of motion is __° per segment for combined flexion-extension.

A

15°

73
Q

Which area of cervicals have the greatest range in flexion-extension at 20°?

A

Mid cervicals

74
Q

Which areas have the lowest cervical range for flexion-extension is C_-C_ and C_-T_ at 10°?

A

C2-C3 and C7-T1

75
Q

Lower cervical flexion/extension movement is combination of segmental tipping (sagittal ______) and gliding (sagittal ______).

A

rotation; translation

76
Q

With lower cervical flexion-extension (C3-C7), which motion has the following characteristics?

• anterior disc compression … posterior distraction
• facets glide apart producing stretching and joint gapping
A

flexion

77
Q

With lower cervical flexion-extension (C3-C7), which motion has the following characteristics?

• anterior disc distraction … posterior compression
• facets approximate … compression at inferior margins
A

extension

78
Q

With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7) what is the average lateral flexion range to each side?

A

range is 7°-8°

79
Q

True/False: With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7), lateral flexion increases as move caudally down cervical spine.

A

FALSE!! With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7), lateral flexion DECREASES as move caudally down cervical spine

80
Q

With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7) (coupled motion), lateral flexion is coupled with which type of rotation?

A

ipsilateral axial rotation

81
Q

True/False: With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7), the degree of coupled rotation decreases in a cephalic to caudal direction

A

True

82
Q

With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7), lateral disc wedging and approximation are present on the side of ______ ______ and distraction is present where?

A

lateral flexion; on the side opposite lateral flexion

83
Q

With lower cervical lateral flexion (C3-C7), the inferior facet glides _____ and _____ on the side of lateral flexion and ____ and ___________ on the side opposite lateral flexion.

A

down and medially; up and laterally

84
Q

With lower cervical rotation (C3-C7) what is the average rotation range of motion to each side?

A

range of motion is 5°

85
Q

With lower cervical rotation (C3-C7), rotation decreases significantly at which vertebral segment? What is the average rotation at this segment?

A

C7-T1; average rotation is 2°

86
Q

With lower cervical rotation (C3-C7), there is predominantly which type of rotation coupled with which type of flexion?

A

axial rotation; ipsilateral lateral flexion

87
Q

With lower cervical rotation (C3-C7), the vertebral bodies lateral flex to which side?

A

to the side of rotation

88
Q

True/False: With lower cervical rotation (C3-C7), the coupling is not as strong as that noted with cervical lateral flexion.

A

True

89
Q

With lower cervical rotation (C3-C7), on the side of rotation the inferior facet glides which two directions? And on the side opposite rotation the inferior facet glides which two directions?

A

down and medially; up and laterally

90
Q

With typical thoracic biomechanics (T2-T8), what are the characteristics of transverse processes? Spinous processes?

A

transverse processes are thick, strong and long; spinous processes are long and slender

91
Q

With typical thoracic biomechanics (T2-T8), where are costovertebral joints located? And with what do they articulate?

A

on side of vertebral body articulate with rib heads

92
Q

With typical thoracic biomechanics (T2-T8), where are the costotransverse joints located? And with what do they articulate?

A

on transverse process articulate with tubercles of ribs

93
Q

With typical thoracic biomechanics (T2-T8), articular facets form a __° angle from the transverse toward which plane and a __° angle from the coronal toward which plane?

A

60° angle; coronal plane; 20° angle; sagittal plane

94
Q

With typical thoracic biomechanics (T2-T8), inferior facets face which 3 directions? Superior facets face which 3 directions?

A

Inferior: inferiorly, medially and anteriorly
Superior: superiorly, laterally and posteriorly

95
Q

What are the atypical thoracic vertebrae? (T1 and T9-T12)

A

T1 and T9-T12

96
Q

With atypical thoracic vertebrae, T1 resembles which cervical vertebra? What is another characteristic specific to T1 relating to the ribs?

A

C7; has a whole facet for articulation with the first rib

97
Q

With atypical thoracic vertebrae, T9-T12 have what atypical characteristics?

A

variations on the location of the facets on the body and transverse process for articulation with the ribs

98
Q

With atypical thoracic vertebrae, T11 and T12 begin to take on which type of characteristics?

A

begin to take on the characteristics of a lumbar vertebra

99
Q

With the thoracic curve, what is the kyphotic curve degree range and average?

A

20°-50° (average is 45°)

100
Q

With the thoracic curve, where does it begin? What does it extend to?

A

T1-T2 and extends to T12

101
Q

With the thoracic curve, where is the apex located?

A

T6-T7 disc space

102
Q

With the thoracic curve, when is the primary curve developed?

A

at birth

103
Q

With the thoracic curve, flattening of thoracic curve will cause which 3 curvature changes?

A
• cervical curve to decrease
• cervical curve to shift forward
• lumbar curve to increase
104
Q

True/False: With thoracic disc, the disc height-to-body height ratio 1:5, which is the smallest ratio in the spine; this contributes to decreased flexibility in the thoracic spine.

A

True

105
Q

Within the thoracic disc, what is the location of the nucleus pulposus?

A

located centrally within annulus

106
Q

In thoracic flexion and extension, thoracic segment combined flexion-extension averages _°. What are the degrees for the following areas?
_° in upper thoracics, _° in middle thoracics, __° in lower thoracics

A

6°; 4° in upper thoracics, 6° in middle thoracics, 12° in lower thoracics

107
Q

Thoracic flexion and extension combines which sagittal plane motion with slight sagittal plane translation (minimal).

A

rotation;

108
Q

Which thoracic movement has articular facets that glide apart as the disc opens posteriorly?

A

flexion

109
Q

Which thoracic movement has facet joints and posterior discs that approximate?

A

extension

110
Q

In thoracic lateral flexion (coupled motion), what is the average degree movement to each side?

A

averages approximately 6° to each side

111
Q

In thoracic lateral flexion (coupled motion), upper thoracic lateral flexion is coupled with which type of rotation?

A

axial rotation

112
Q

Upper thoracic lateral flexion and rotation occur to the same side, body rotation to the _______ and spinous deviation to the ________.

A

concavity; convexity

113
Q

True/False: In the middle and lower thoracics coupling may occur in either direction.

A

True

114
Q

In thoracic lateral flexion, the disc and facet joint approximate on the side of ______ flexion and separate on the side _______ ______ flexion.

A

lateral; opposite lateral

115
Q

Upper thoracic inferior articular facets glide which direction on the side of lateral flexion and which direction on the side opposite lateral flexion due to what?

A

medially; laterally; strong coupled axial rotation

116
Q

With thoracic rotation, upper thoracic average rotation is °-° to each side. Rotation decreases in ______ thoracics and is minimal in ______ thoracics.

A

8°-9°; middle; lower

117
Q

Upper thoracic rotation is coupled with which type of lateral flexion?

A

same-side

118
Q

In thoracic rotation, inferior facets glide which direction on same side of rotation and glide which direction on the side opposite rotation?

A

inferiorly; superiorly

119
Q

With rib motions, “Pump Handle Action” (T1-T6), with inspiration, ribs associated with T1-T6 are pulled in which 2 directions?

A

up and forward

120
Q

With rib motions, the pump handle movement increases the _____ diameter of the rib cage. The rib head rolls _________, elevating the anterior end of the rib like the handle of a pump

A

A-P; downward

121
Q

With rib motions, “Bucket Handle Action” (T7-T10), with inspiration, ribs T7-T10 are moved in which 2 directions?

A

elevated and depressed

122
Q

With rib motions, bucket handle movement increases the ______ diameter of the rib cage. The ribs ride in which 2 directions on the transverse process while the rib elevation and depression simulates a bucket handle moving on its hinges.

A

transverse; up and down

123
Q

With rib motions, “Caliper Action” (T8-T12), with inspiration, ribs T8-T12 move in which direction? Caliper movement increases the _______ diameter of the rib cage.

A

laterally; lateral

124
Q

With lumbar biomechanics (L1-L5), what are the characteristics of the pedicles and laminae? Spinous processes? Transverse processes?

A
• pedicles and laminae are short, broad and strong;
• spinous processes are thick and broad
• transverse processes are long, slender and flattened on their anterior and posterior surfaces
125
Q

With lumbar biomechanics (L1-L5), articular facets primarily in which plane but become more ________ at the lumbosacral junction.

A

sagittal; coronal

126
Q

With lumbar biomechanics, greatest mobility is in which 2 movements? Why?

A

flexion-extension; facet orientation limits rotational flexibility

127
Q

With lumbar curve, what is the degree of lordotic curve, including the average?

A

20°-60° (average is 35°)

128
Q

Where does lumbar curve begin? Where does it extend? Where is the apex?

A

L1-L2 and extends to sacrum; apex is at L3-L4

129
Q

What type of curve is the lumbar curve and how does it develop?

A

Secondary curve; develops in response to standing

130
Q

With lumbar curve, anterior pelvic tilt ________ lordosis, posterior pelvic tilt ________ lordosis

A

increases; decreases

131
Q

True/False: The lumbar disc height-to-body height ratio is 1:3 and allows ROM.

A

True

132
Q

Within the lumbars, where is the nucleus pulposus located? What two things does this allow for?

A

posteriorly within annulus
• allows for movement
• resists axial compression forces

133
Q

Compression force from body weight and muscle contraction raises _________ pressure in the nucleus pulposus.

A

hydrostatic

134
Q

Increased tension in the annulus inhibits what of the nucleus?

A

135
Q

Increased nuclear pressure is exerted upward and downward against what?

A

the endplates

136
Q

True/False: Increased pressure elevates tension in the annular fibrosus. Pressure within the nucleus reinforces the peripheral annulus fibrosus creating a stable weight-bearing structure.

A

True

137
Q

What is a shallow generalized extension of the disc tissues beyond the edges of the vertebral body (<3mm)?

A

Disc Bulge

138
Q

What condition do the following characteristics describe?

• annual fibers buckle outward
• may compress neural tissues in the IVF or spinal canal
• pain
• joint dysfunction
A

Disc bulge

139
Q

True/False: A disc bulge is a herniation.

A

FALSE!! It is NOT a herniation!

140
Q

What term describes a symmetrical presence of disc tissue “circumferentially” beyond the edges of the vertebral body?

A

“Bulging disc”

141
Q

True/False: “Bulging” is a descriptive term for the shape of the disc and is not diagnostic

A

True

142
Q

Asymmetrical bulging of the disc margin, is found in which condition?

A

severe scoliosis

143
Q

What do the following characteristics describe?
• disc material ruptures through the annular fibers
• may compress nerve in IVF
• may cause radicular pain
• intense inflammatory response
• torn annular fibers cause somatic pain

A

Disc Herniation

144
Q

What is a localized displacement of disc material beyond the limits of the intervertebral disc space? This is “localized” process involving less than 50% (180°) of the disc circumference.

A

Disc Herniation

145
Q

Which type of herniation involves less than 25% (90°) of the disc circumference?

A

Focal” Herniation

146
Q

Which type of herniation involves between 25% and 50% (90-180°) of the disc circumference?

A

147
Q

True/False: Herniated discs may take the form of protrusion or extrusion, based on the shape of the displaced material.

A

True

148
Q

What is the term for when the base of the herniation is broader than the distance it protrudes into the spinal canal?

A

Protrusion

149
Q

What is the term for when the disc material balloons into the canal with a comparatively narrow base, as if trying to bud off and may become sequestered?

A

Extrusion

150
Q

What do the following characteristics describe?
• radial, transverse or concentric tears (fissures) in the annulus
• may weaken the disc
• may generate pain
• disc material may migrate into the tears

A

Annular Tears

151
Q

What is the lumbar segment combined flexion-extension averages?

A

15°

152
Q

True/False: Lumbar flexion and extension combines sagittal plane rotation with slight sagittal plane translation (minimal).

A

True

153
Q

With lumbar flexion, the vertebra tilts and slides _______, facets glide ________, and disc is compressed ______ and stretched ________.

A

anteriorly; superiorly

anteriorly; posteriorly

154
Q

With lumber extension, the vertebra tilts _______. Facets approximate, facet capsule, disc, and anterior longitudinal ligament are stretched _______.

A

posteriorly; anteriorly

155
Q

With lumbar lateral flexion, what is the average degree movement to each side? What about the lumbosacral joint?

A

averages approximately 6° to each side

the lumbosacral joint has only about 3°of lateral flexion

156
Q

True/False: Lumbar lateral flexion is coupled with same side rotation, facets on side of lateral flexion glide together, and facets on side opposite lateral flexion glide apart.

A

FALSE!!!: Lumbar lateral flexion is coupled with OPPOSITE side rotation, facets on side of lateral flexion glide together, and facets on side opposite lateral flexion glide apart.

157
Q

Lumbar Right lateral flexion have what 2 characteristics of movement?

A
• facets on right glide together

* facets on left glide apart

158
Q

Lumbar lateral flexion is coupled with opposite side rotation, which is body rotation to the ________ and spinous deviation to the _______. This is opposite of the coupled motion in the cervical and upper thoracic spine.

A

convexity; concavity