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Functional Neuranatomy > Block 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Block 1 Deck (100):
1

perikaryon

soma; the cell body which structured in a way that promotes high levels of gene transcription, protein synthesis and energy production

2

nucleus

where DNA is transcribed to RNA

3

ribosomes

location of translation

4

Nissl bodies

clumps or stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum

5

Golgi complex

protein modification and packaging

6

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

a tubular network forming an internal transport system
-contains enzymes for lipid and steroid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

7

mitochondria

energy production
-location of Kreb's cycle and electron transport chain

8

nucleolus

The nucleolus is located in the nucleus and makes ribosomal subunits from proteins and ribosomal RNA, also known as rRNA

9

microtubules

cytoskeletal proteins that are the "tracks" that vesicles are moved along by small proteins
- are approximately 20 nm

10

neurofilaments

give the neuron "stiffness"

11

microfilaments

-have become synonymous with actin
-contractile protein important for motility (like in growth cones in development), neurotransmission, and plasticity

12

The Law of Dynamic Polarization

-Cajal
-the neuron receives information at the dendrite and transmits information at the axon
**there are many exceptions to this

13

Light Microscope can resolve structures from ____. This is used in neuroscience to see _____

.2 microns = 2 * 100* nm = 2*1000 angstroms. Light miscroscope can be used with Nissl stains and Golgi stain and myelin stain to study cytoarchitecture.

14

Nissl stains and Light Microscopy can be used to study

identify brain sites that have been experimentally manipulated (lesion or electrode)

15

Why can Electron Microscopes resolve objects that are smaller or even closer together than LM?

electrons have shorter wavelengths than photons.
-electron microscopes can resolve 2-3 nm.

16

Retrograde tracing

-used to determine the afferents to a region
-tracer is injected that selectively binds to surface glycoproteins on axons, is endocytosed and transported back to soma

17

collateralization

axonal branching patterns

18

anterograde tracing

-used to determine the efferents from a region
-inject a tracer that selectively binds to glycoproteins on soma and dendrites, gets taken up by endocytosis and transported out the axons

19

name the 3 distinct germ layers

-ectoderm
-the mesoderm
-endoderm

20

neurulation begins with ___ and ends with ___

-thickening of the neural plate
-ends with closure of the neural tube at the neuropores

21

what induces the head process in the early ectoderm to thicken?

the notochord (a mesoderm structure)

22

the anterior neuropore closes at

24 days

23

the posterior neuropore closes at

26 days

24

failure of the neural tube to close at anterior neuropore causes

anencephaly
-most still born, but either way not sustainable to life

25

failure of the neural tube to close at the posterior neural tube results in

spina bifida

26

somites

-segmented collections of mesodermal cells
-will make up muscles, skeleton, and connective tissue
-each somite will eventually develop connections with individual spinal cord segments

27

cells of neural crest give rise to

sensory neurons of PNS and postganglionic autonomic motor neurons
-also give rise to Schwann cells and meningeal cells

28

cells of neural tube give rise to

-somatic motor neurons
-preganglionic autonomic motor neurons, and all interneurons
-also give rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

29

where do the neurons of the neural tube develop from?

neuroepithelium in the ependymal layer

30

radial glial cells

-guide migrating neurons to their appropriate positions
-when job is done they will differentiate into astrocytesd

31

name the 3 layers of the early neural tube

-ependymal
-mantle
-marginal

32

where does neuronal migration end in spinal cord?

-ends in mantle layer which will become the gray matter
-white matter (marginal) develops external to gray matter (mantle)

33

where does neuronal migration end in the brain

-continues into the marginal layer
-In cerebellar and cerebral cortices:
gray matter develops external to white matter

34

sulcus limitans

-limiting groove that develops at 4-6 weeks which divides the alar plate from the basal plate

35

alar plate

contains interneurons that receive input from axons of sensory neurons

36

basal plate

-ventral
-contains cell bodies of motor neurons

37

basal

=ventral=motor=efferent

38

alar

=dorsal=sensory=afferent

39

encephalization

expansion of brain in developing embryo

40

at 4 weeks, what are the 3 main bulges or vesicles

prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon

41

at 5 weeks, name the 5 major vesicles

telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon

42

telencephalon

cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

43

diencephalon

thalamus and hypothalamus

44

metencephalon

pons and cerebellum

45

myelencephalon

medulla

46

where does the optic vesicle emerge from?

diencephalon

47

infundibulum

connects the pituitary gland to the diencephalon

48

name the ventricles and where they develop from

lateral (telencephalon)
-third (diencephalon)
-cerebral aqueduct (mesencephalon)
-fourth (met-and myelencephalon)
-central canal (spinal cord)

49

name the 3 flexures that the embryo develops with

-cervical (spinalcord and hindbrain)
-cephalic (midbrain and hindbrain)
-pontine (within hindbrain)

50

which flexure persists in adult brain?

the cephalic

51

what is the source of motor neurons?

the basal plate

52

pruning

-the process during puberty where synapses begin to decline

53

fetal alcohol syndrome

-excessive alcohol consumption during later phases of encephalization which results in microcephaly and mental retardation

54

name the main subdivisions of the brainstem

-medulla, pons, midbrain

55

medulla

-The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and therefore deals with the autonomic functions of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
-glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) vagus nerve (CN X) accessory nerve (CN XI), hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

56

pons

-The middle four cranial nerves originate from the pons:

trigeminal nerve (CN V)
abducens nerve (CN VI)
facial nerve (CN VII)
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)

57

Midbrain

oculomotor nerve (CN III)
trochlear nerve (CN IV)
Pons

58

what are the general functions of the brainstem?

-contains neurons that regulate vegetative functions:
circulation, respiration, digestion, sleep/wakefullness,
-houses cranial nerve nuclei
-contains ascending and descending pathways between cortex and spinal cord and in and out of cerebellum
-participates in rhythmic motor patterns and crude voluntary movement

59

name the cranial nerves in order of rostro-caudal

-Olfactory
-optic
-oculomotor
-trochlear
-trigeminal
-abducens
-facial
-vestibulocochlear
-glossopharyngeal
-Vagus
-Accessory
-Hypoglossal

60

Olfactory nerve (1)

-pure sensory
-smell

61

Optic Nerve (2)

-pure sensory
-vision

62

Oculomotor (3)

-somatic motor
-muscles for eye movements, lens accommodation and pupil dilation

63

Trochlear (4)

-somatic motor
-muscles for eye movement

64

Trigeminal (5)

-somatic motor: muscles for chewing
-somatic sensory: somatosensory from face

65

Abducens (6)

somatic motor: muscles for eye movement

66

Facial (7)

Somatic motor: muscles for facial expression
visceral motor: lacrimation and salivation
visceral sensory: taste, anterior 2/3

67

vestibulocochlear (8)

-Somatic sensory: balance and hearing

68

glossopharyngeal (IX)

-somatic motor: muscles for swallowing
visceral motor: salivation
visceral sensory: carotid body/sinus; taste, posterior 1/3

69

Vagus (10)

somatic motor: muscles for swallowing and speaking
visceral motor: thoracic and abdominal viscera
visceral sensory: thoracic and abdominal region

70

Accessory (11)

somatic motor: muscles for head and neck movement

71

hypoglossal (12)

-somatic motor: muscles for tongue

72

special visceral efferents

skeletal motor neurons that innervate muscles of the face, mouth, larynx, and pharynx

73

branchial arches

-primitive gill slits that had a visceral function but became more cartilaginous in course of evolution
-muscles innervated by the SVE developed from these

74

what makes the optic nerve different from the other cranial nerves

it contains axons of sensory neurons derived from the neural tube
-optic nerve derives from diencephalon and connects to the retina

75

cranial nerves with motor functions

-motor neurons have their cell bodies in brainstem cranial nerve nuclei that resemble ventral horn of spinal cord

76

cranial nerves with sensory function

-have cell bodies in cranial ganglia peripheral to the brain--> terminate in brainstem nuclei that resemble the dorsal horn

77

Medulla (white matter and gray matter structures)

-white: pyramids, dorsal columns, medial lemniscus
-gray: dorsal column nuclei, inferior olivary nucleus

78

Pons (white matter and gray matter)

white: cerebellar peduncles
gray: pontine nucleus

79

Midbrain (white matter and gray matter nuclei)

-white: cerebral peduncle
gray: inferior colliclulus, superior colliclulus, red nucleus, substantia nigra

80

cerebral aqueduct

connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles

81

neural crest derived cells

-Schwann cells
-Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
-Arachnoid cells
-pia matter cells
-multipolar postganglionic motor neurons of ANS
-Bipolar sensory neurons
-Pseudo-unipolar sensory neurons
-

82

pyramids

-of the medulla
-carry descending motor information from cortex to spinal cord (corticospinal)

83

what structures separate the diencephalon from the telencephalon

internal capsule and the lateral ventricles

84

name the 6 major cell groups within the thalamus

lateral, anterior, medial, midline, intralaminar, and reticular

85

internal capsule

white matter structure
-contains ascending fibers from thalamus to cortex
-also contains descending fibers from cortex to the pontine nucleus, brainstem, and spinal cord

86

name the pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex to its termination at ventral horn

cerebral cortex>internal capsule>cerebral peduncle>pons>pyramid>pyramidal decussation (crossover)>lateral column> ventral horn

87

basal ganglia

-telencephalic structures that participate in motor planning
-consist of caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus (known together as the corpus striatum)

88

coronal suture

-fuses frontal and parietal bones

89

sagittal suture

fuses the two parietal bones at midline

90

lamboid suture

fuses parietal and the occipital bones

91

squamous suture

separates the temporal bone from the parietal and occipital bone

92

longitudinal fissures

divides the cerebrum into two hemisheres

93

lateral fissures

separates the temporal lobe from overlying cortices

94

insula

-cortex buried deep inside lateral fissure

95

central sulcus

divides primary somatosensory cortex from primary motor cortex

96

cerebellum

-involved in error correction of movement
-develops from rhombic lip of alar plateof metencephalon

97

cerebellum is connected to the brainstem via

cerebellar peduncles

98

describe layers of white and gray matter in cerebellum

-external: gray>white> deep cerebellar nuclei

99

The main function of Divergence is

coordination

100

the main function of convergence is

integration