Block 12 Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 12 Pharmacology Deck (30):
1

Azathioprine

Purine metabolism antagonist (Immunosuppresive drug)

Uses: Autoimmune conditions (RA, SLE, Chrohn's, Ulcerative colitis) and to prevent transplant rejection

MOA: Inhibits purine synthesis -> inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis -> inhibits CELL PROLIFERATION

S/E: bone marrow suppression (need monitoring for myelosuppresion)

2

Diclofenac

NSAID

Analgesic and Anti-pyretic with some anti-inflammatory efffect


Uses: Pain, dysmenorrhea and ocular inflammation (miosis)

MOA: Inhibition of COX1 and COX2 -> inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis

3

Celecoxib

NSAID

Uses: RA and osteoarthritis and FAP

MOA: COX2 SPECIFIC inhibitor -> inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis

note: only targeting COX2 means no anti-platelet effect (like aspirin) -> cannot be used as substitute

4

Cyclophosphamide

Alkylating agent

Uses: Chemotherapy drug (leukaemias and myelomas)

MOA: • Attach alkyl groups to DNA bases OR
• Form cross-bridges between base pairs in DNA OR
• Cause the mispairing of the nucleotides leading to mutations

5

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)

Fat soluble coenzyme

Uses: Rickets, osteoporosis and vit. D deficiency -> increases Ca absorption from intestines and decrease PTH which decreases resorption of calcium from bones

MOA: • It's a prodrug, becomes hormonally active once metabolised in liver and kidney
• In the liver cholecalciferol -> 25-hydroxycholecalciferol
• In the kidney 25-hydroxycholecalciferol -> 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

6

Ciclosporin

Immunosupressive agent

Uses: To prevent raft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation.

MOA: Binds to cyclophilin -> this inhibits calcineurin -> decreased transcription of IL-2.
This causes reversible inhibition of T cells (TH1) in the G0/ G1 cell cycle phase.

7

Aurothiomalate

DMARD A gold based anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive agent

Uses: Rheumatoid arthritis

MOA: Unknown - possible inhibition of prostaglandins

8

Chloroquine

Anti-malarial (Shizonticidal)

Uses: to treat infections caused by chloroquine-resistant P.falciparun malaria or acute attacks of malignant malaria (P. falciparum)

MOA: Inhibit heme breakdown used for digestion -> lack of breakdown = parasite starves and toxic levels hemoglobin builds up -> PARASITIC death

Same MOA as quinine

9

Sulfasalazine

DMARD

Uses: IBD (Crohn's, UC) and RA

MOA: Unknown. Thought to be anti-inflammatory

10

Calcitonin/Salcatonin

Hormone produced by thyroid parafollicular cells

Uses: Hypercalcemia

MOA: Reduces Serum Ca levels (opposes action of PTH which increases concentrations) -> binds GCPR receptors in osteoclasts and increased bone deposition

11

Prednisolone

Glucocorticoid receptor agonist (Corticosteroid)

Uses: Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory -> RA, SLE, leukemias, lymphomas etc

MOA: Binds nuclear glucocorticoid receptor -> inhibit expression of prostaglandins, kinins, histamine and other inflammatory mediators

12

Raloxifene

Selective oestrogen receptor modulator

Uses: Slows the rate of bone loss and used as treatment of post-menopausal symptoms

MOA: Binds to oestrogen receptors in bone -> reduces bone resorption and increases bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Also antagonises effects of oestrogen on mammary and uterine tissues.

13

Alendronic acid

Bisphosphonate

Uses: to treat osteoporosis (especially in PM women), Paget's disease and hypercalcemia

MOA: inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption and turnover (via inhibition of FPP synthase)

14

Digoxin

Cardiac glycoside (Na/K ATPase inhibitor)

Uses: Heart failure, supraventricular arrhythmias, and AF

MOA: Inhibits the Na/K ATPase which increasing intracellular Na -> This in turn causes the Na-Ca exchanger to extrude sodium out and pump in more calcium -> increases contractility of heart muscle cells.

15

Betaxolol

Cardioselective B1 adrenoceptor antagonist

Uses: Ischaemic heart disease (note: bisoprolol is more commonly used)

MOA: Inhibits B1 receptors are found in heart -> reduction of heart rate, cardiac output, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

16

Diazepam


Uses:

MOA:

17

Propofol


Uses:

MOA:

18

Lamotrigine


Uses:

MOA:

19

Carbamazepine


Uses:

MOA:

20

Phenytoin


Uses:

MOA:

21

Donepezil


Uses:

MOA:

22

Suzamethonium


Uses:

MOA:

23

Levodopa


Uses:

MOA:

24

Bromocriptine


Uses:

MOA:

25

Gabapentin


Uses:

MOA:

26

Selegiline


Uses:

MOA:

27

Isoflurane


Uses:

MOA:

28

Atracurium


Uses:

MOA:

29

Memantine


Uses:

MOA:

30

Fentanyl


Uses:

MOA: