Blood and Blood Cells Flashcards Preview

MCD - Introduction to Cells > Blood and Blood Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Blood Cells Deck (19):
1

Major cellular and soluble components of blood

Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Platelets
Plasma

2

Function of erythrocytes

Transport oxygen via haemoglobin

3

Function of leukocytes

White blood cells that illicit an immune response to foreign material

4

Function of platelets

Enucleated cells required for clotting process

5

Function of plasma

Serum containing dissolved hormones, dissolved substances

6

Function of blood

Connective tissue
Haemostasis
Maintain homeostasis
Support of genitalia
Heat distribution
Immune response
Transportation

7

Structure of haemoglobin

Globular 4 subunit protein, each with a prosthetic haem group

8

Role of haemoglobin

Bind oxygen, becomes easier to bind oxygen as more oxygen molecules bind. CO 200x higher affinity than O2.

9

Haemoglobin concentration normal ranges

Men 13.5-16.5
Women 11.5-14.5

10

Red cell count normal values

Men 5.4x10^12/L
Women 4.8x^12L

11

Haematocrit normal ranges

Men 0.40-0.54
Women 0.35-0.47

12

MCV mean cell volume normal range

82-99fl

13

MCH mean cell haemoglobin normal range

27-33pm

14

MCHC mean cell haemoglobin concentration normal range

32-34g/dl

15

Definition of Anaemia

Low blood haemoglobin concentration

16

What are the 3 main types of anaemia?

Microcytic
Normocytic
Macrocytic

17

What is microcytic anaemia and what are it's causes

Small mean cell volume (microcytic), failure to synthesise haemoglobin caused by iron deficiency from sustained slow blood loss, e.g. menstruation, GIT lesions, cancer, and parasitic infections

18

What is normocytic anaemia and what are is causes

Normal mean cell volume (normocytic), RBC production is normal but has sustained acute blood loss, injury/stabbing etc

19

What is microcytic anaemia and what are its causes

Large mean cell volume (macrocytic), DNA synthesis and cell division fail during erythropoiesis, reduced division of progenitor cells so fewer but larger RBCs. Caused by folic acid/vit B12 deficiency during pregnancy, autoimmune disease, pernicious anaemia (destruction of Vit B12 uptake in gut) and vegetarians and vegans (lack of dietary vit B12)