what percentage of blood is made of cellular components?
what is the most dominant cell in the blood?
the red blood cell
what is haemopoiesis?
the production of blood cells and platelets in bone marrow
how long do platelets and red blood cells live in the blood?
erythrocytes - 120 days
platelets - 7/10 days
where does haemopoiesis occur in utero?
liver & spleen
where does haemopoiesis occur in children?
in all bones
where does haemopoiesis occur in adults?
in the axial skeleton
what series of cells produces every blood cell other than lymphocytes?
the myeloid series.
monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes to platelets
what series makes the lymphocytes?
the lymphoid series
what cell makes platelets?
the megakaryocyte - a huge multinucleate cell
what hormone controls red blood cell production?
what hormone controls white blood cell production?
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
what hormone controls platelet production?
what groups/chains is haemoglobin made of?
4 protein (globin) chains, a haem ring and an iron (Fe2+)
how does the haemoglobin allow for oxygen transport?
each haem group has a ferrous iron in the middle which attracts oxygen at high concentrations and releases it at low concentrations
what vitamin deficiency can cause a lack of iron in haem groups?
name 2 important haemoglobin diseases?
what are the life lenghts of the different white blood cells? neutrophils monocytes basophils eosinophils lymphocytes
neutrophils - 6/10 hours
monocytes - 20/40 hours
basophils/eosinophils - days
lymphocytes - weeks/years
whats the most common white blood cell?
what is in plasma?
proteins (immunoglobins, albumin, carrier proteins, coagulation proteins)
what does albumin do?
determines the oncotic pressure of the blood
what does a lack of albumin cause?
where is albumin produced?
what enzymes are involved in the clotting cascade?
prothrombin –> thrombin (via serine protease)
thrombin turns fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin