Flashcards in Blood transfusion Deck (50)
What are the types of blood donation?
Immediate preoperative hemodilution
Intraoperative Blood Salvage or Collection
How is blood typed for blood donation?
◦ ABO group
◦ Rh factor
Contain iso-antibodies that will fight off any antigens
A patient with Type A blood can receive a transfusion of Type AB blood?
False. Only from type O and type A
A patient with Type AB blood can receive a transfusion of Type O blood?
True. Type AB can receive from type O, A, B, and AB
If your blood is positive for which diseases can it not be used?
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV- 1 & 2)
Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)
Hepatitis C core virus (HCV)
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAG)
Human T-Cell Lympotropic Virus, Type I
West Nile Virus
What diseases are transmitted through transfusion?
Hepatitis – viral hepatitis B, C
AIDS – HIV
Graft vs Host Disease (GVHD)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
What are the types of blood products?
Packed Red Blood Cells
Fresh Frozen Plasma
What is needed for the pre-transfusion assessment?
Patients’ transfusion history
Any transfusions in the past
Any reactions noted
Focus on oxygenation & perfusion
Know the patient’s baseline VS
Complete skin assessment
Explain the procedure
Answer any questions
Reassure the patient and reduce anxiety
What signs and symptoms/reactions should the nurse assess for during the blood transfusion process?
S/S of transfusion reaction:
◦ Monitor VS per protocol
◦ Skin assessment – hives, flushing
◦ GI – N/V
◦ Chest pain
◦ Headache, fever
What are the complications and adverse reactions that can occur during & post transfusion?
Acute hemolytic reactions
Delayed hemolytic reactions
Febrile nonhemolytic reaction
Transfusion-related acute lung injury
What interventions should be done if a transfusion reaction is suspected?
Stop the transfusion
Assess for additional S & S
Notify prescriber - if the patient is
unstable call the Rapid-Response Team
Notify blood bank of suspected reaction
Follow the facility policy
Caused by a major ABO incompatability
acute hemolytic reaction
what are the signs & symptoms acute hemolytic reaction?
◦ Fever, chills, low back pain, chest pain,
dyspnea, bronchospasm, nausea, anxiety,
hypotension, tachycardia, hemoglobinuria
What are the nursing interventions for acute hemolytic reactions?
◦ Foley catheter
◦ Low-dose dopamine (based on VS)
◦ Administer platelets &/or fresh frozen plasma
Usually occurs within 2 weeks post transfusion
Slow breakdown of RBCs
Decrease in hematocrit
delayed hemolytic reaction
What are the signs & symptoms of delayed hemolytic reactions?
Fever, anemia, jaundice, increased bilirubin levels
What are the nursing interventions for delayed hemolytic reactions?
no interventions needed
Caused by patient’s antibodies reacting to leukocytes in donor blood
febrile nonhemolytic reactions
Febrile nonhemolytic reactions occurs more frequently in which types of patients?
◦ Received transfusions in the past
◦ Rh (-) women that gave birth to Rh (+) children
What are the signs & symptoms of febrile nonhemolytic reactions?
◦ Fever (beginning within 2 hours after start of
transfusion), flu-like symptoms, chills
tachycardia, headache, N & V, back pain
How can febrile nonhemolytic reactions be prevented in the future?
by reducing the number of leukocytes in donor blood
An allergic reaction from a blood transfusion can occur from?
antibody reaction to a specific protein in the donor unit
What are the signs & symptoms of a blood transfusion allergic reaction?
S & S:
o Mild-urticaria (hives), pruritus, nasal rhinitis, flushing
o Severe-bronchospasms, wheezing, laryngeal edema, shock
What are the nursing interventions for mild allergic reaction?
o Mild reaction-antihistamine may be ordered,
What should be done if anaphylactic type symptoms continue?
o Call the Rapid-Response Team
o Be prepared to administer epinephrine,
What should be done to prevent future allergic reactions from occurring?
o Re-medicate with antihistamines
o Product is washed to remove plasma proteins which
trigger the response
What acronym should we remember for blood transfusion reactions? What does it stand for?
A(allergic). F(febrile). H(hemolytic)
An allergic reaction can include?