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Flashcards in Blood values Deck (70):
1

Haemoglobin

Normal values: M 130-180g/L; F 115-165g/L

Low: anaemia (microcytic, macrocytic, normocytic), pregnancy, marrow failure

High: polycythaemia

2

Ca2+

Normal: 2.15-2.65mmol/L

3

Calcium in term baby

Normal: 2.10-2.95mmol/L

High:

Low:

4

Calcium in preterm baby

Normal: 1.90-2.85mmol/L

5

Phosphate

Normal: 0.80-1.40mmol/L

6

Phosphate in term baby

Normal: 0.95-1.70mmol/L

High:

Low: osteopenia of prematurity

7

Phosphate in preterm baby

Normal: 0.93-1.72mmol/L

High:

Low: osteopenia of prematurity

8

TSH

Normal: 0.33-4.5U/L

High: hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease, atrophic thyroid, post RAI or surgery), post-thyroiditis, sick euthyroid

Low: hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular adenoma, subacute thyroiditis, post partum thyroiditis)

9

Free T3

Normal: 3.2-6.5pmol/L

High: hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular adenoma, subacute thyroiditis, post partum thyroiditis)

Low: hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease, atrophic thyroid, post RAI or surgery), post-thyroiditis, sick euthyroid

10

Free T4

Normal: 10.2-22.0pmol/L

High: hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular adenoma, subacute thyroiditis, post partum thyroiditis)

Low: hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease, atrophic thyroid, post RAI or surgery), post-thyroiditis, sick euthyroid

11

Thyroglobulin

<5ug/L

High: pregnancy, papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma

12

White cell count

Normal: 3.6-11.0x10^9/L

13

Platelet count

Normal: 140-400x10^9/L

14

Neutrophils

Normal: 1.8-7.5x10^9/L

High: bacterial infection, inflammation, myeloproliferation, drugs (steroids), disseminated malignancy, stress (haemorrhage, trauma, surgery, burns, seizure)

Low: viral infections, drugs (chemotherapy, cytotoxic, carbimazole, sulphonamides), sepsis, SLE, haemolytic anaemia, bone marrow failure, hypersplenism

15

Lymphocytes

Normal: 1.0-4.0x10^9/L

High: acute viral infections, chronic infections, leukaemia, lymphoma

Low: steroids, SLE, uraemia, Legionnaire’s disease, HIV, marrow infiltration, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

16

Monocytes

Normal: 0.2-0.8x10^9/L

High: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chronic infection, malignancy, myelodysplasia

17

Eosinophils

Normal: 0.1-0.4x10^9/L

High: drug reactions (erythema multiforme), allergies, afoot, parasitic infections, skin disease, malignancy

18

Basophils

Normal: 0.02-0.1x10^9/L

High: myeloproliferation, viral infections, hypersensitivity, inflammatory disorders

19

Red cell count

Normal: M 4.5-6.5x10^12/L; F 3.8-5.8x10^12/L

20

Haematocrit

Normal: M 0.4-0.54L/L; F 0.37-0.47L/L

21

Mean cell volume

Normal: 80-100fL

Low: microcytic anaemia (iron deficiency, thalassaemia, sideroblastic)

High: macrocytic anaemia (B12 deficiency, alcohol, reticulocytosis, drugs eg hydroxycarbamide and phenytoin, hypothyroidism, marrow infiltration, myelodysplasia), haemolytic anaemia (if many young RBCs present)

22

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin

Normal: 27-32pg/cell

Low: iron-deficiency anaemia

23

Reticulocyte count

Normal: 0.2-2%

High: haemolysis, haemorrhage, recently treated iron/B12 deficiency anaemia

24

Prothrombin time

Normal: 10-14s

25

Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Normal: 24-37s

26

Fibrinogen

Normal: 1.5-4.5s

27

Ferritin

Normal: M 25-350ng/mL; F 10-300ng/mL

Low: iron deficiency

High: anaemia of chronic disease, chronic haemolysis, haemochromatosis, sideroblastic anaemia

28

Vitamin B12

Normal: 180-1000pg/mL

29

Folate

Normal: >4.0ng/mL

30

Na+

Normal: 133-146mmol/L

31

K+

Normal: 3.5-5.3mmol/L

32

Mg2+

Normal: 0.7-1.0mmol/L

33

Urea

Normal: 2.5-7.8mmol/L

34

Creatinine

Normal: M 59-104umol/L; F 45-84umol/L

35

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

Normal: 30-130U/L

36

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Normal: M <41U/L; F <33U/L

37

Bilirubin

Normal: <21umol/L

38

Gamma-glutimyl transferase (GGT)

Normal: M <60U/L; F <40U/L

39

Albumin

Normal: 35-50g/L

40

Creatinine kinase (CK)

Normal: M 40-320U/L; F 25-200U/L

41

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

Normal: 240-480U/L

42

Lactate

Normal: 0.5-2.2mmol/L

43

Urate

Normal: M 200-430umol/L; F 140-360umol/L

44

Amylase

Normal: 28-100U/dL

45

Cholesterol

Normal: <5mmol/L

46

Triglyceride

Normal: 0.55-1.90mmmol/L

47

LDL

Normal: <3mmol/L

48

HDL

Normal: >1mmol/L

49

Cholesterol/HDL

Normal: <4

50

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Normal: M <49yo 1-7; M >50yo 2-10; F <49yo 3-9; F >50yo 5-15

51

C-reactive protein (CRP)

Normal: <5mg/L

52

GH (random)

Normal: M <5ng/mL; F <10ng/mL

53

Cortisol (random)

Normal: 137-429nmol/L

54

Testosterone

Normal: M <49yo 10-45nmol/L; >50yo 6.2-26nmol/L; F <2.0nmol/L

55

Fasting blood glucose

Normal: 4.0-6.0mmol/L

56

Postprandial blood glucose (2h after eating)

Normal: <7.8mmol/L

57

HbA1c

Normal: <42mmol/mol (6.0%)

58

pH

Normal: 7.35-7.45

59

ABG: pO2

Normal: 11-13kPa

60

ABG: pCO2

Normal: 4.7-6.0kPa

61

HCO3

Normal: 22-26mmol/L

62

Base excess (BE)

Normal: -2 to +2mmol/L

63

Red cell distribution width (RCDW)

Normal: 11.5-14.6%

High: mixed macrocytic and microcytic anaemias (eg malabsorption)

64

Iron

Normal: M 14-32umol/L; F 10-28umol/L

Low: iron deficiency, anaemia of chronic disease

High: chronic haemolysis, haemochromatosis, pregnancy, sideroblastic anaemia

65

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

Normal: 45-72umol/L

Low: chronic haemolysis, haemochromatosis, anaemia of chronic disease

High: iron deficiency, pregnancy

66

Prothrombin time (PT)

Normal: differs dependent on site, is normalised using INR (normal 0.9-1.2)

High: Faulty extrinsic pathway (e.g. warfarin, vitamin K deficient, liver disease, DIC)

67

Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Normal: 35-45s

High: Intrinsic pathway deficiency (e.g. heparin, haemophilia, DIC, liver disease, haemophilia, von Willebrand's disease)

68

Thrombin time

Normal: 10-15s

High: heparin, DIC, dysfibrinogenaemia

69

D-dimers

Normal:

High: DIC, VTE (DVT/PE), inflammation (including infection and malignancy)

70

Bleeding time

Normal: <10min

High: DIC, liver disease, platelet deficiency, von Willebrand's disease