Flashcards in Body Defense Deck (50):
An animal must be able to prevent pathogen entry into the body to maintain what?
The immune system must be able to recognize?
Self from non-self
The goal of the immune system is to _____ the pathogen
If the immune system is successful in eliminating the pathogen the animal will?
Survive, remain productive and develop enhanced long-term protection against the pathogen
What occurs if the animal isn't successful in eliminating the pathogen?
Disease, reduced productivity and ultimately death
What are non-pathogenic commensal microbial populations?
They reside on the epithelium of the skin and mucosal surfaces of the GI, respiratory and urogenital tracts
The immune system tolerates the commensal microbes because they are in what kind of relationship?
What is a symbiotic relationship?
Host provides nutrients and and environment that supports microbe survival. Microbe makes nutrients available to host and provides a level of protection against invading microbes.
What are the two arms of the immune system?
Innate and acquired (adaptive)
What arm of the immune system is ancient and highly conserved?
When did the acquired immune system become functional?
What two genes were involved in the evolution of the acquired immune system?
RAG1 and RAG2
What are the gene products of RAG1 and RAG2 and what do they do?
Enzymes that mediate the first steps of B cell receptor and T cell receptor V,D,J gene recombination.
What is a somatic mutation?
Change in genetic structure that is not inherited from a parent nor is it passed on to the offspring
What is immunity?
The protection provided by the immune system to resist infection
What are the effectors called that make up the innate and acquired immune system and this provide immunity?
Humoral proteins and cells
The innate and acquired immune response is regulated by?
Self and the neuro endocrine system
Excessive and prolonged immune responses contribute to host tissue damage that can lead to what 4 things?
Chronic inflammatory disease, development and proliferation of tumor cells, sensitization to environmental antigens and sensitization of self-antigens
What does sensitization to environmental antigens lead to?
Sensitization to self-antigens may lead to?
During microbial invasion, immune cells release immune signaling molecules called? As well as?
Cytokines as well as neuropeptides
What is the neuroendocrine-immune axis?
Bidirectional communication between the CNS and immune response
What is the best host anti microbial defense?
Restrict microbial access and attachment to epithelial cells (skin, repiratory, GI and urogenital tract)
What are some barriers?
Sloughing of dead cells making up the stratum corneum of skin, mucous flow from the skin of many fish species and amphibians and tracts in other animals, increased body temperature in homeothermic species, low pH of the stomach, anaerobic GI tract, colonization of commensal microbes along the host epithelium, physical processes such as vomiting and diarrhea
Immune cells and humoral proteins provide ______ protection to the host
The innate immune response manifests as?
The host inflammatory response
What is the inflammatory response triggered by?
Recognition of danger signals otherwise known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by soluble and cell membrane pattern-recognition receptors (PAMPs)
What are the two danger signals?
Highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) making up the microbial membrane an host alarm signals (alarmins) that are released by damaged host cells.
What arm of the immune system has limited specificity and does not provide long-term enhanced protection?
The inflammatory response typically remains ______ to site(s) of infection
How does the systemic inflammatory response syndrome occur? And what can it lead to?
When local defenses are breached and the infection becomes systemic. It can lead to sepsis resulting in organ failure and death.
What arm of the immune response has long-term immunity and is highly specific?
Acquired immune response
The acquired immune response can manifest as?
A humoral antibody response (AbMIR) or a cell-mediated immune response (CMIR)
What does the AbMIR target?
Extra cellular pathogens
What does the CMIR target?
How does the acquired immune response occur?
Has to be sufficient inflammation to activate innate immune cells to a level where they will process and present microbial antigens to antigen-specific lymphocytes in highly specialized lymphoid tissues
Do the antigen-specific lymphocytes become activated?
What do antigen specific lymphocytes do?
Becomes activated to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells of the acquired immune system
How long does the primary acquired immune response occur?
A higher level of protection much more efficient than the primary acquired immune response is a result of?
Subsequent encounters with the invading pathogen
True or false - enhanced level of protection of the acquired immune response reaches a threshold over time
True or false - the immune system does not aid in the repair and remodeling of tissue
What is the resolution phase of the immune response?
Repair and remodeling of tissues damaged during infection
What do antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of the AbMIR do?
Present antigens from extracellular pathogens to antigen specific T cells.
What do T cells of the AbMIR do?
Activate antigen specific B cells to proliferate and differentiate into effector plasma cells
What do effector plasma cells of the AbMIR do?
Secrete antibodies with various effector functions
What do CMIR intracellular pathogen's antigen presenting cells do?
Present antigens to antigen specific T cells
What do T cells of the CMIR do?
Proliferate and differentiate into effector T cells
What do effector T cells do?
Target pathogen infected cells for killing