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Comparative Immunology > Body Defense > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Defense Deck (50):
0

An animal must be able to prevent pathogen entry into the body to maintain what?

Homeostasis

1

The immune system must be able to recognize?

Self from non-self

2

The goal of the immune system is to _____ the pathogen

Eliminate

3

If the immune system is successful in eliminating the pathogen the animal will?

Survive, remain productive and develop enhanced long-term protection against the pathogen

4

What occurs if the animal isn't successful in eliminating the pathogen?

Disease, reduced productivity and ultimately death

5

What are non-pathogenic commensal microbial populations?

They reside on the epithelium of the skin and mucosal surfaces of the GI, respiratory and urogenital tracts

6

The immune system tolerates the commensal microbes because they are in what kind of relationship?

Symbiotic relationship

7

What is a symbiotic relationship?

Host provides nutrients and and environment that supports microbe survival. Microbe makes nutrients available to host and provides a level of protection against invading microbes.

8

What are the two arms of the immune system?

Innate and acquired (adaptive)

9

What arm of the immune system is ancient and highly conserved?

Innate

10

When did the acquired immune system become functional?

525-652 MYA

11

What two genes were involved in the evolution of the acquired immune system?

RAG1 and RAG2

12

What are the gene products of RAG1 and RAG2 and what do they do?

Enzymes that mediate the first steps of B cell receptor and T cell receptor V,D,J gene recombination.

13

What is a somatic mutation?

Change in genetic structure that is not inherited from a parent nor is it passed on to the offspring

14

What is immunity?

The protection provided by the immune system to resist infection

15

What are the effectors called that make up the innate and acquired immune system and this provide immunity?

Humoral proteins and cells

16

The innate and acquired immune response is regulated by?

Self and the neuro endocrine system

17

Excessive and prolonged immune responses contribute to host tissue damage that can lead to what 4 things?

Chronic inflammatory disease, development and proliferation of tumor cells, sensitization to environmental antigens and sensitization of self-antigens

18

What does sensitization to environmental antigens lead to?

Allergy

19

Sensitization to self-antigens may lead to?

Autoimmune disease

20

During microbial invasion, immune cells release immune signaling molecules called? As well as?

Cytokines as well as neuropeptides

21

What is the neuroendocrine-immune axis?

Bidirectional communication between the CNS and immune response

22

What is the best host anti microbial defense?

Restrict microbial access and attachment to epithelial cells (skin, repiratory, GI and urogenital tract)

23

What are some barriers?

Sloughing of dead cells making up the stratum corneum of skin, mucous flow from the skin of many fish species and amphibians and tracts in other animals, increased body temperature in homeothermic species, low pH of the stomach, anaerobic GI tract, colonization of commensal microbes along the host epithelium, physical processes such as vomiting and diarrhea

24

Immune cells and humoral proteins provide ______ protection to the host

Immediate

25

The innate immune response manifests as?

The host inflammatory response

26

What is the inflammatory response triggered by?

Recognition of danger signals otherwise known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by soluble and cell membrane pattern-recognition receptors (PAMPs)

27

What are the two danger signals?

Highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) making up the microbial membrane an host alarm signals (alarmins) that are released by damaged host cells.

28

What arm of the immune system has limited specificity and does not provide long-term enhanced protection?

Innate

29

The inflammatory response typically remains ______ to site(s) of infection

Localized

30

How does the systemic inflammatory response syndrome occur? And what can it lead to?

When local defenses are breached and the infection becomes systemic. It can lead to sepsis resulting in organ failure and death.

31

What arm of the immune response has long-term immunity and is highly specific?

Acquired immune response

32

The acquired immune response can manifest as?

A humoral antibody response (AbMIR) or a cell-mediated immune response (CMIR)

33

What does the AbMIR target?

Extra cellular pathogens

34

What does the CMIR target?

Intercellular pathogens

35

How does the acquired immune response occur?

Has to be sufficient inflammation to activate innate immune cells to a level where they will process and present microbial antigens to antigen-specific lymphocytes in highly specialized lymphoid tissues

36

Do the antigen-specific lymphocytes become activated?

YES!

37

What do antigen specific lymphocytes do?

Becomes activated to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells of the acquired immune system

38

How long does the primary acquired immune response occur?

Days-to-weeks

39

A higher level of protection much more efficient than the primary acquired immune response is a result of?

Subsequent encounters with the invading pathogen

40

True or false - enhanced level of protection of the acquired immune response reaches a threshold over time

True

41

True or false - the immune system does not aid in the repair and remodeling of tissue

False

42

What is the resolution phase of the immune response?

Repair and remodeling of tissues damaged during infection

43

What do antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of the AbMIR do?

Present antigens from extracellular pathogens to antigen specific T cells.

44

What do T cells of the AbMIR do?

Activate antigen specific B cells to proliferate and differentiate into effector plasma cells

45

What do effector plasma cells of the AbMIR do?

Secrete antibodies with various effector functions

46

What do CMIR intracellular pathogen's antigen presenting cells do?

Present antigens to antigen specific T cells

47

What do T cells of the CMIR do?

Proliferate and differentiate into effector T cells

48

What do effector T cells do?

Target pathogen infected cells for killing

49

What has gene duplication contributed to?

Copy number variation that affects mRNA expression, the development of pseudogenes utilized during BCR and TCT gene recombination, the development of non-coding RNA that are involved in gene regulation, development of genes w slightly different or completely novel functions