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Flashcards in Body Fluids CIS Deck (58):
1

total body water

around 42L total

broken to ICF and ECF

ECF is plasma and interstitial fluid

plasma is venous and arterial

2

effective circulating volume

arterial

independent of ECF volume, plasma volume, and cardiac output

3

transcellular fluid

3rd fluid compartment
CSF, synovial, etc.

4

Vd

volume of distribution of drug
-apparent volume of body fluid in which total dose of drug is distributed at same concentration in plasma
-useful in calculating doses

5

Vd < 3L

only in plasma

6

Vd = 14L

drug in plasma and interstitial

7

Vd > 45L

drug widely distributed and bound in body tissues

8

body fluid compartments?

intake and output balanced

9

intracellular?

potassium and phosphate

also proteins and magnesium slightly larger

10

extracellular?

sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate

11

what remains relatively stable between extra and intra compartments?

total mOsm/L
-in osmotic equilibrium

12

more positive ions in plasma

because they can complex with negatively charged albumin

aka donnan effect**

13

albumin

higher in ICF and plasma
lower in interstitial fluid

14

proteins?

do not move across moembrane
-don't impact osmolarity but do exert oncotic pressure

15

malnourishment?

not enough albumin in vessels to hold in water

water goes to peritoneal cavity (distended abdomen)

16

measure of body fluid compartment volumes

total body water, ECF, and plasma volume can be measured directly by dilution of injected radioactive substances or dyes

ICF then calculated by TBW - ECF
interstitial can be calculated ECF - plasma volume

17

plasma volume and hematocrit known?

TBV = plasma / 1 - hematocrit

18

osmolarity in ECF = ?

osmolarity of ICF

19

why is Na and K concentration slightly higher in vascular space?

donnan effect
-negative charge of proteins within vasculature attracts positively charged ions

20

balance in ECF?

between interstitial and intravascular

Na+ and osmolarity normally balanced

21

osmolarity established

in ECF due to presence of Na and Cl

22

disruption of pump activity?

ex/ hypoxia

increased ICF Na
water follows Na and cell swells

23

intracellular osmolarity

established by presence of K+

24

cell membrane

between ECF and ICF
-highly water soluble

not permeable to most electrolytes
fluid distribution dependent on osmotic effects of Na and Cl

25

capillary cell membrane?

between ECF compartments
highly permeable to small ions

fluid distribution due to balance between capillary hydrostatic P and colloid osmotic P (Starling)

26

maintenence of body fluid balance regulated by two factors which govern NaCl and water balance

ECF volume and ECF osmolarity

27

osmotic equilibration

movement of water acros cell membranes from higher to lower concentration as result of osmotic pressure difference across membrane

28

darrow-yannet diagram

concentration vs. volume

29

what change occurs first?

ECF compartment change

30

ICF and ECF?

in osmotic equilibrium

water moves only when osmotic pressure gradient exists

31

fluid distribution between plasma and interstitial fluid

maintained by balanced of hydrostatic and osmotic forces across capillaries

32

fluid distribution between ECF and ICF

determined by osmotic effect of small solutes across cell membrane

33

crystalloid fluids

contain varying concentration of electrolytes and can stay in ECF or be widely distributed

ex/ normal saline, lactated ringers solution

34

colloid fluids

contain large proteins and molecules that stay in the vascular space

ex/ dextran, albumin

35

isosmotic

solutions with same osmolarity as ECF

there will be a volume increase only

36

hyperosmotic

solution has higher osmolarity than that of ECF

water moves from ICF to ECF
-increase ECF volume and decreased ICF volume

37

hyposmotic

solution has osmolarity less than ECF

added to ECF, decreases osmolarity and water moves into cells (into ICF)

ECF and ICF volume both increase

38

tonicity

change in cell volume due to osmotic equilibrium with water movement across cell membranes

39

hypotonic solution

cell swelling

40

hypertonic solution

cell shrinking

41

tonicity depends on

concentration of impermeant solutes in ECF vs. ICF

42

fluid distribution between ICF and ECF determined by?

ion distribution
ATPase activity

43

distribution of ECF between plasma and interstitial compartments determined primarily by

hydrostatic and oncotic pressure
intravascular pressure in capillaries vs. plasma proteins and solute concentration

44

edema

inappropriate renal fluid retention

45

non-pitting edema

swollen cells due to increased ICF volume

46

pitting edema

increased interstitial fluid volume

47

altered starling forces edema

interstitial increased by 2.5-3L

-compensatory renal retention of sodium and water to maintain plasma volume in response to underfilling of the vasculature must occur in this situation to cause edema

48

renal retention of sodium and water edema

inappropriate renal fluid retention

49

isoosmotic volume contraction and expansion

osmolarity remains same in ICF and ECF

only changes in ECF volume

ex/ vomiting, diarrhea, infusion of 0.9% NaCl

50

hyperosmotic volume contraction

loss of water
-osmolarity increase and volume decrease in ECF

-then ICF volume decreases to equilibrate

ex/ dehydration, diabetes insipidus

51

hyperosmotic volume expansion

gain in NaCl
-osmolarity of NaCl increase and volume

-then ICF volume decreases

ex/ salt intake, mannitol infusion

52

hypoosmotic volume contraction

loss of NaCl
-ECF osmolarity and volume decrease

ex/ hypoaldosteronism, adrenal insufficiency

53

hypoosmotic volume expansion

gain of water
-decreases osmolarity of ECF

water increases in ECF and ICF volumes

ex/ SIADH, psychogenic, polydipsia

54

ADH

regulates osmolarity

55

thirst

regulates osmolarity

56

SNS

volume regulation

57

RAAS

volume regulation

58

ANP

volume regulation