Body Systems Flashcards Preview

Year 9 Science > Body Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Systems Deck (55):
1

Nervous System

the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse. It comprises the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

2

Central nervous system

the part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

3

Peripheral nervous system

made up of sensory and motor neurons. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body, and detects and responds to change.

4

Electrical Impulses

nerve signals that pass rapidly from the receptors and along the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system

5

Neurotransmitters

chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

6

Synapses

the gap between adjoining neurons across which electrical nervous impulses are sent

7

Endocrine System

the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

8

Endocrine Glands

organs that produce hormones. Endocrine glands release their hormones into the bloodstream for transport to target organs.

9

Hormones

chemical substances produced by glands and circulated in the blood. Hormones have specific effects in the body.

10

Digestive

a complex series of organs and glands that processes food in order to supply your body with the nutrients it needs to function effectively

11

Respiratory

concerning the airways or breathing

12

Circulatory

the body system that circulates oxygen in blood to all the cells of the body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood.

13

Excretory

the body system that removes waste substances from the body

14

Respiratory system

the body system involving the lungs and associated structures, which take in air and supply the blood with oxygen to deliver to the body's cells so they can carry out their essential functions; it also performs gas exchange to remove the waste gas carbon dioxide

15

Trachea

narrow tube from the mouth to the lungs through which air moves

16

Lungs

the organ for breathing air. Gas exchange occurs in the lungs.

17

Bronchi

the narrow tubes through which air passes from the trachea to the smaller bronchioles and alveoli in the respiratory system. Singular = bronchus.

18

Bronchioles

small branching tubes in the lungs leading from the two larger bronchi to the alveoli

19

Alveoli

tiny air sacs in the lungs at the ends of the narrowest tubes. Oxygen moves from alveoli into the surrounding blood vessels, in exchange for carbon dioxide.

20

Capillaries

minute tubes carrying blood to body cells. Every cell of the body is supplied with blood through capillaries.

21

Circulatory system

the body system that circulates oxygen in blood to all the cells of the body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood.

22

Digestive system

a complex series of organs and glands that processes food in order to supply your body with the nutrients it needs to function effectively

23

Enzymes

special chemicals that speed up reactions but are themselves not used up in the reaction

24

Circulatory System

the body system that circulates oxygen in blood to all the cells of the body. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood.

25

Endocrine system

the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

26

Neurotransmitters

chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

27

Norepinephrine

also called noradrenaline; common neurotransmitter involved in arousal state

28

Oxygen

a gas in the air (and water) that animals need to breathe; made up of particles with two oxygen atoms. Plants produce oxygen as part of photosynthesis

29

Cellular respiration

the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.

30

Glucose

simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar

31

a gas in the air produced by respiration and used by plants as part of photosynthesis. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide

32

Respiratory system

the body system involving the lungs and associated structures, which take in air and supply the blood with oxygen to deliver to the body's cells so they can carry out their essential functions; it also performs gas exchange to remove the waste gas carbon dioxide

33

Digestive system

a complex series of organs and glands that processes food in order to supply your body with the nutrients it needs to function effectively

34

Excretory system

the body system that removes waste substances from the body

35

Digestion

breakdown of food into a form that can be used by an animal. It includes both mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

36

Enzymes

special chemicals that speed up reactions but are themselves not used up in the reaction

37

Saliva

watery substance in the mouth that moistens food before swallowing

38

Salivary glands

glands in the mouth that produce saliva

39

Chemical digestion

the chemical reactions changing food into simpler substances that are absorbed into the bloodstream for use in other parts of the body

40

Mechanical digestion

digestion that uses physical factors such as chewing with the teeth

41

Bolts

round, chewed-up ball of food made in the mouth that makes swallowing easier

42

Oesophagus

part of the digestive system composed of a tube connecting the mouth and pharynx

43

Peristalsis

the process of pushing food along the oesophagus or small intestine by the action of muscles

44

Small intestine

the part of the digestive system between the stomach and large intestine, where much of the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients takes place

45

Absorption

the taking in of a substance, for example, from the intestine to the surrounding capillaries

46

Villi

tiny finger-like projections from the wall of the intestine that maximise the surface area of the structure to increase the efficiency of nutrient absorption. Singular = villus.

47

Colon

the part of the large intestine where a food mass passes from the small intestine, and where water and other remaining essential nutrients are absorbed into your body

48

Large intestine

the penultimate part of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from the waste before it is transported out of the body

49

Vitamin D

a nutrient that regulates the concentration of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream and promotes the healthy growth and remodelling of bone, along with other functions

50

Cellulose

a nutrient that regulates the concentration of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream and promotes the healthy growth and remodelling of bone, along with other functions

51

Rectum

the final section of the digestive system, where waste food matter is stored as faeces before being excreted through the anus

52

Anus

the final part of the digestive system, through which faeces are passed as waste

53

Bile

substance produced by the liver that helps digest fats and oils

54

Gall bladder

a small organ that stores and concentrates bile within the body

55

Digestive System

Body system the removes waste from our body