Flashcards in bonding Deck (17)
carbon with a +1 formal charge can make 3 bonds total
formal charge vs oxidation state
both are bookkeeping methods for electrons. Formal charge assumes that the compound is 100% covalent. Oxidation state assumes it is 100% ionic
carbon with a -1 formal charge can make up to 3 bonds and must have a lone pair.
the higher the value the weaker the acid
the higher the value the stronger the acid
how is Keq related to pKa
Keq = pKa(left) - pKa(right)
the reaction always favors the weaker acid
predicting the stability of a conjugate base
there are two main factors
1.the electronegativity... as we increase electronegativity the better the base becomes at stabilizing electrons
2.the size... the bigger the base the better it would be at spreading out the electrons thereby getting less repulsion.
3.induction: if you have more electronegative atoms in a compound which would be able to help spread a negative charge around the compound
5.hybridization: the more S character you have the smaller the distance between the electrons and the nucleus therefore losing a H+ would be more favored. Making SP hybirds the most acidic and SP3 the least
nitrogen formal charge of 0
3 bonds with a lone pair
4 bonds no lone pairs
2 bonds 2 lone pairs
oxygen formal charge
2 bonds 2 lone pairs
3 bonds 1 lone pair
1 bond 3 lone pairs
patterns for resonance structures
1.a lone pair next to a pi bond
2.positive charge next to a pi bond
3.strong electronegatihain with only single bondsvity difference
a carbon chain with only single bonds in the main chain
staggered vs eclipsed projections
peace sign in front for both. For staggered fill in the spots in between. For eclipsed directly behind.
dihydral angle (DA)
the distance between the H atoms in a staggered projections. To illustrate how staggered it is
what is a gauche interaction
its a newman projection which two methyl groups are next to each other causing an energy loss of 3.8 KJ/mol per pair. if there are 4 CH3 groups right next to each other then there are 3 pairs.
axial vs equatorial
axial hydrogens are not parallel to any other atom. Equatorial atoms are parallel to atleast one other.