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Med School Year 2 Flash Cards > Bone Tumors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Tumors Deck (42):
1

Bosselated, round sessile tumor projecting from the subperiosteal surface on or inside the skull and facial bones in middle aged adults

Osteoma

2

What is the osteoma composed of?

Woven or lamellar bone
Trabecular bone with marrow

3

Happens in teens and 20s
Worse at night
Relieved by NSAIDs
Arises in femur or tibia

Osteiod osteoma

4

What is a osteoblastoma composed of?

Woven bone and osteoblasts with stroma of loose CT and dilate congested capillaries

5

Radiation promotes malignancy
Nidus
Need to resect to prevent recurrence

Osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma

6

How is an osteoblastoma different from and osteoid osteoma?

The pain is dull and achy
It doesn't respond to NSAIDs
Involved the spine

7

What is the most common primary malignancy of bone?

Osteosarcoma

8

What are the genetic mutations associated with osteosarcoma?

Rb
P53
Cdk4
P16
Ink4a
cyclin d1
Mdm2

9

Who gets osteosarcoma?

75% younger than 20
And the elderly with paget's, irradiation, bone infarcts
Men

10

Where is it most likely to show up?

In the metaphysis of long bones intramedullary - around the knee

11

Forms bone with coarse lace like architecture, destroys cornices and produces soft tissue mass
X-ray: shows lytic and blastic lesions
Codman's triangle

Osteosarcoma

12

What other disease is osteosarcoma associated with?

Polyostotic paget's
Poor prog

13

Benign cartilage capped outgrowth near the growth plate of long tubular bones

Osteochondroma

14

Mushroom shaped
Benign hyaline cartilage cap
Painful if impinged in nerves or stalk is fractured
Auto Dom
Late adolescence
Men

Osteochondroma

15

What is the most common intraosseous cartilage tumor?

Chondroma

16

Solitary, short tubular bones of hands and feet
Gray blue tumor

Chondroma

17

What is Ollier disease?

Multiple endochondromas

18

What is maffucci syndrome?

Endochondromatosis and soft tissue hemangiomas
Can lead to ovarian carcinoma and brain gliomas

19

O ring sign on X-ray
Neoplastic chondrocytes that reside in lacunae
Unmineralized Nodules of cartilage on X-rays

Chondroma

20

In young teens, males more than females
Epiphysis and apophyses
Composed of sheets of chondroblasts
Hyaline matrix with lace like configuration = chicken wire

Chondroblastoma

21

X-ray shows spotty calcification
Painful with effusion and restrict joint mobility

Chondroblastoma

22

Arise in metaphysis of long bones
Has chondrocytes in lacunae and stellate cells in the myxoid area

Chondromyxoid fibroma

23

Dull achy pain
X-rays : eccentric geographic lucency with well delineated from adjacent bone by rim of sclerosis
No malignant transformation

Chondromyxoid fibroma

24

Produces neoplasticism cartilage
Large bulky tumor of malignant hyaline and myxoid cartilage
Spotty calcification with central necrosis

Chondrosarcoma

25

Broad pushing fronts
Arise in central skeleton
Different variants

Chondrosarcoma

26

What clear cell chondrosarcoma?

Sheets of large malignant chondrocytes with abundant clear cytoplasm, intralesional reactive bone formation
Seen in teens
In epiphysis of long bones

27

Islands of well differentiated hyaline cartilage with sheets of small round cells
Teens

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

28

What is the most common tumor of adulthood?

Lipoma

29

Doughy
Subcutis
Mobile painless mass

Lipoma

30

Arise in deep soft tissues of proximal extremities and retroperitoneum
Has lipoblasts
Pleomorphic variants and round cell variants are aggressive with frequent mets

Liposarcoma

31

Most common in the lower extremities
Translocation to ch.18 produces fusion of SYT-SSX1/2
Most common in 20s to 40s

Synovial sarcoma

32

Biphasic differentiation: epithelial cells and spindle cells
Calcified concretions on X-rays
Rxns for keratin and epithelial membrane Ag

Synovial sarcoma

33

What is the most common neoplasm in women?

Leiomyoma

34

Spindle cells intersecting at right angles
Arise in uterus nipples, scrotum
Blunt ended, elongated nuclei

Leiomyoma

35

Females
Develop in the skin and deep soft tissues of extremities and retroperitoneum
Cigar shaped nuclei
Malignant SMCs with dense bodies and pinocytotic vesicles

Leiomyosarcoma

36

Stain with abs for vimentin, actin, SM actin, desmin

Leiomyosarcoma

37

What is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood?

Rhabdomyosarcoma

38

Translocation 2;13 = PAX3 fuses with FKHR --- dysregulation of muscle differentiation
Eccentric Eosinophilic granular cytoplasm rich in thick and thin filaments

Rhabdomyosarcoma

39

Tadpole or strap cells
Sarcomeres stain with Ab to desmin, MYOD1, myogenin

Rhabdomyosarcoma

40

What is the rhabdomyosarcoma variant with the worst prognosis?

Botryroid variant
Embryonal
Pleomorphic
Alveolar

41

Children younger than 10
Grape like lesions in mucosal cavities
Allelic loss of ch.11p15.5
Cambium layer with hypercellularity

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
Sarcoma Botryoides

42

Resembles pulmonary alveolae
Cells with cross-striation
Has t(2;13) or (1;13)
In early to mid adolescence

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma