Bones and calcium Flashcards Preview

Limbs and back week 1 > Bones and calcium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bones and calcium Deck (25):
1

Draw and label a vertebrae

f

2

Name the 2 spine curvatures

Lordosis and khyphosis

3

Draw and label the 2 spine curvatures

c

4

What spine curvature is the secondary curvature

Lordosis

5

Where is calcium from our diet absorbed

upper lower intestine

6

Name the 2 main hormones that control calcium aborption

Parathyroid hormone and 1.25 dihidroxyvitamin (DHCC)

7

What is the role of 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin

Controls calcium absorption and activates vitamin d

8

What happens to PTH levels when calcium increases

PTH decreases

9

What does PTH stimulate

Stimulates renal tubular calcium reorption and peromotes bone resorption, which stimulates DHCC formation

10

Describe the 2 steps of calcium absorption

1. Absorption in small intestine occurs. Controlled by DHCC. 20%-60% of injested calcium is absorbed here. DHCC increaes absorption if dietary intake of calcium drops
2. In kidney, calcium is absorbed in thick acending loop and distal convulated tube. Here, pth increases apsorption levels.

11

Name the cellular marker for osteoclast function

RANK ligand

12

How does rank ligand work

When present, rank ligand stimulates osteoclasts. Estrogen produces OPG, which when binds to RANK inhibits rank ligand therefore inhibits osteoclast function,

13

When does hypocalceamia occur

When there is decreased calcium levels in the body

14

What is the hypercalaemia receptor

chief cells of the parathyroid gland detect decreased calcium

15

What is the hypercalaemia control centre

Chief cells stimulate PTH release

16

What is the hypercalaemia effector

1. PTH increase osteoclastic activity, releasing calcium
2. Calcium resorption in kidney increases
3. pth stimulates 1.25 DHCC to absorb calcium in the gut

17

When does hypercalcaemia occur

When there are increased calcium levels in the body

18

What i the hypercalcaemia receptor

Parafollicur cells of the thyroid gland that detect increased calcium levels

19

WHat is the hypercalcaemia control centre

Thyroid gland produces more 1.25 DHCC

20

What is the hypercalcaemia effector

1. 1.25 DHCC stimulates an increase in number/activity of osteoblasts, preventing calcium release
2. Calcium resorption in kidneys decreases

21

What 2 joints do you find between vertebra

intervertebral discs and atricular process

22

Describe intervertebral discs (structure and function)

concentric layers of fibrocartilage that helps carry weight

23

Describe articular process joints

interlock at the facet joint and control the direction of movements

24

What movements do vertebral joints allow

Straightening = extension
turning=rotation

25

What limits excessive movement by vertebral joints

ligaments