Who published the seminal study, 'The Reflective Practitioner'?
Donald Schön (1983)
In Schöns' (1983) work what were the discrepancies found?
Professionals provided different accounts from their practice and they do carry it out. This varied between the formal, rational dimensions of their working methods and the less formal, more intuitive and emotional dimensions.
Reflection in & on action is from which Author
Donald Schön (1983) - Reflective The Reflective Practitioner
Who developed the idea of management science?
Frederick Taylor in the 1920's
5 Elements (Functions) of Henri Fayol (1841-1925) "Father of Modern Management"
1. Technical Activities 2. Commercial Activities 3. Financial Activities 4. Security Activities 5. Accounts Activities 6. Managerial Activities
Name a drawback of Fayol - 5 Elements (Functions)
TCFSAM is not up to date. It does not reflect today organisation environments. Many small and medium businesses are adopting more flexible approaches to functional management.
Explain the Fayol (1917) POCCC management elements?
Explain the 3 pulls of role definition.
The roles that people play in organisations are shaped by three different pulls (see Figure ). They are,
2. Organisation's expectation
3. The person
(Mintzberg, 1975) explains what about management roles.
If you ask a manager what he does, he will most likely tell you that he plans, organizes, coordinates and controls. Then watch what he does. Don’t be surprised if you can’t relate what you see to these four words.
Mintzberg identified the chief characteristics of management activity as...
- a fast pace of work
- many interruptions
- brevity, variety and fragmentation of activities
- lots of verbal (rather than written) contacts (note: Mintzberg’s observation occurred before email existed)
- much time in scheduled meetings.
Mintzberg (1975) went on to identify a range of roles that managers were required to play.
The work of a manager is described in terms of ten roles or clusters of behaviours associated with a position. What are they?
The strength of Mintzberg’s work is not so much the precise lists of roles he suggests, but that he points to the fact that managers are expected to perform a set of very different sorts of behaviours at different times. They have to be able to adjust their roles and their relationships depending on circumstances. Mintzberg recognised that the ability to draw appropriately on a diverse repertoire of roles is key to effective management.
What is Freemans (1984) explanation of a stakeholder?
Any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the performance of the achievement of the organization’s objectives.
(Freeman, 1984, p. 46)
What are the 9 C's in the stakeholder checklist?
Those who pay the organisation to do things
Those who acquire and use the organisation’s products
Those with whom the organisation works to develop and deliver products
Those from whom the organisation acquires content for products
Those who provide the organisation with a route to a market or customer
Those whose opinions of the organisation are heard by customers and others
Those who are served by the organisation’s customers, e.g. end users
Those who believe in and will actively promote the project
Those working in the same area who offer similar or alternative services
Describe Power versus interest from Johnson et al., 2008
- Low/Low - Minimal Effort
- Low/High - Keep informed
- High/Low - Keep Satisfied
- High/High - Key Players
Explain Price (2009) identifies four categories of stakeholder analysis.
Highlight some weaknesses of Johnson et al (2008) and Price (2009)
Both matrices encourage a proactive approach to the management of stakeholders. However, we should note that such categorisation presupposes that stakeholder positions are fixed, whereas in fact they are dynamic and may shift according to the issue at hand, so stakeholder vigilance is crucial.
What is Scholes 9 Stakeholder Map? State the positions
Scholes’ nine stakeholder maps, explain each stakeholder state. 1 - 5
Explain Scholes 9 Stakeholder map. 6 - 9
Explain Stacey’s (2000) model of political activity and conflict
Divergent objectives simply mean that individuals and/or departments can have different agendas and want different things from each other. All too often in organisations people and/or departments are explicitly rewarded for achieving different things, even where this means that as an (unintended) consequence, competition is promoted instead of cooperation.
What is power?
How does (Giddens, 1984, p. 14), explain power?
An agent ceases to be such if he or she loses the capability to ‘make a difference’, that is to exercise some sort of power.