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Flashcards in booklet 1 Deck (21):
1

Annexation

Taking over another country against its will

2

Anti-socialist laws

Introduced in 1878. The laws banned socialist groups, meetings and publications. They were upheld by the police surveillance and powers given to local authorities.

3

Authoritarianism

A broad term meaning government by strong non-democratic leadership.

4

Bourgeoisie

The upper and middle class who own the capital (money) and means of production (factories and mines).

5

Bundersrat

The Federal council 1871-1918. It comprised 58 members nominated by the assemblies of the 25 states of Germany.

6

Constitution

A set of rules by which the country is run.

7

Federalism

A government in which several states divide responsibilities between central and regional authority.

8

Holy Roman Empire

Formed in the 9th century and by 1800 it had become a loose empire of separate states.

9

Kaiserreich

Imperial Germany, or the second empire.

10

Kanzler

The chancellor.

11

Kulturkampf

A struggle for culture or civilization. Bismarck's anti-Catholic policy of the 1870s.

12

Mittelstand

Can be translated as 'the middle class', but in German society it tends to represent the lower middle classes. Traditionally independent and self-reliant, but it increasingly felt squeezed out between the power and influence of big business and industrial labour.

13

Landtag

Within the federal structure, each state had its own assembly.

14

Nationalism

The belief in - and support for - a national identity.

15

Reichstag

The imperial parliament elected by all male voters over 25.

16

Sovereign state

A state that administers its own government and is not dependent upon or subject to another power.

17

Structuralists

Interpret history by analysing the role of social forces and structures. Therefore they tend to place less emphasis on the role of the individual.

18

Sectarian

A form of hatred arising from differences between divisions in a group.

19

Volk

Often translated at people, although it tends to suggest a nation with the same ethnic and cultural identities and with a collective sense of belonging.

20

Wilhelmine

A term for the period of German history 1890-1918. It refers to the rule of Wilhelm 2nd, in contrast to the Bismarckian era, 1871-90.

21

Zollverein

The customs union of German states. It created a free trade area by removing internal customs, but upholding customs on imports from foreign trade partners.