Booklet 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Booklet 5 Deck (84):
1

antisemitism

hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

2

brown shirts (SA)

the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. The SA were also called the "Brownshirts" from the colour of their uniform shirts

3

bolsheviks

member of a wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, which, led by Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia (October 1917) and became the dominant political power.

4

bolshevism

the communist form of government adopted in Russia following the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.

5

censorship

the act of restricting freedom of acecss to ideas or works, usually by governments, and usually to protect the percieved common good; may be related to speech, writings, works of art, religious practices, or military manners

6

collectivization

an economic policy where all land is taken away from private owners and combined in large, collectively worked farms

7

communism

a system of society with property vested in the community and each member working for the common benefit according to his or her capacity and recieving according to his or her needs

8

communist party (CPSU)

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union).

9

controlled participation

Controlled Participation Actions of authoritarian or totalitarian government to force citizens to take part in mock elections or attend parades and sporting events as a propaganda tool to show their regime is supported by the people

10

cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a regime uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods such as government-organized demonstrations to create an idealized, heroic, and at times worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

11

dissent

the political act of disagreeing; the right to disagree.

12

enabling act

a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. lasted 4 years

13

eugenics

a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population. controlling human repopulation so that desirable genetic traits are encouraged and undesirable traits are eliminated.

14

fascism

an extreme, right-wing, anti-democratic nationalist movement which led to totalitarian forms of governemnt in germany and italy from the 1920s to 1940s.

15

government by the elite

oligarchy, government led and formed by an elite group usually a family or ethnic minority

16

great depression

an economic crisis that began in late 1929 with the stock market crash and continued through the 1930s. during this period, banks failed, factories closed, many people became unemployed, and international trade declined.

17

gulag

In Russia, the government agency created under Vladimir Lenin which reached its peak as the Soviet forced labor camp system during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s up until the 1950s.

18

hitler

a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator, Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust.

19

hitler youth

the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany; used to ensure the future of the reich, taught to report any anti-nazi behaviour

20

holocaust

a genocide during World War II in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews

21

holodomor

a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed an officially estimated 7 million to 10 million people. stalin used it to break the spirit of the people

22

indoctrination

the process of teaching a person or group to accept a set of beliefs uncritically.

23

kristallnacht

a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians. The German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues were smashed.

24

kulaks

a category of affluent peasants in the early Soviet Union. The word kulak originally referred to independent farmers in the Russian Empire who emerged from the peasantry and became wealthy. The label of kulak was broadened in 1918 to include any peasant who resisted handing over their grain to detachments from Moscow. During 1929–1933, Stalin's leadership of the total campaign to collectivize the peasantry meant that "peasants with a couple of cows or five or six acres more than their neighbors" were labeled "kulaks".

25

lenin

a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism.

26

minority groups

a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and it may be defined by law.

27

nationalism

patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.

28

national socialism

more commonly known as Nazism is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party, Nazi Germany and other far-right groups.

29

night of the long knives

a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany. Many of those killed were leaders of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazis' own paramilitary organization, colloquially known as the "Brownshirts" due to the color of their uniforms.

30

NKVD

the leading Soviet secret police organization from 1934 to 1946. It is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. administered the gulag, had predetermined quotas

31

NSDAP

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party

32

nuremburg laws

antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany; pushed denaturalization, stripped citizenship for Jews

33

reactionary

tending to oppose change.

34

rule of law

a key principle in liberal democracies that states that every individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law

35

propaganda

exaggeration and misrepresentation of information to rally suppourt for a cause or issue

36

purges

an abrupt or violent removal of a group of people from an organization or place.

37

reichstag and fire

a German word generally meaning parliament, was burned down and was used to show that communists were bad, communists banned from the reichstag

38

scapegoat

a person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, especially for reasons of expediency.

39

show trial

a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant. The actual trial has as its only goal the presentation of both the accusation and the verdict to the public so they will serve as both an impressive example and a warning to other would-be dissidents or transgressors.

40

SS

major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany. An elite corps of combat troops (SS is short for Schutzstaffel, which is German for “protective shield”) formed originally within the German Nazi party as a bodyguard for Adolf Hitler and other Nazi leaders

41

stalin

a Georgian-born Soviet revolutionary and political leader. Governing the Soviet Union as its dictator from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and as Premier of the Soviet Union. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism while his own policies became known as Stalinism.

42

stalinism

the ideology and policies adopted by Stalin, based on centralization, totalitarianism, and the pursuit of communism.

43

soviet union (USSR)

a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple equal national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

44

techniques of dictatorship

indoctrination, propaganda, terror, restriction of personal freedoms

45

totalitarianism

a government system that seeks complete control over the public and private lives of its citizens. ALL aspects of society.

46

war communism

War Communism was the name given to the economic system that existed in Russia from 1918 to 1921. War Communism was introduced by Lenin to combat the economic problems brought on by the civil war in Russia. Failed. lead to strikes, riots, etc.

47

weimar republic

The Weimar Republic is the name given to the German government between the end of the Imperial period (1918) and the beginning of Nazi Germany (1933). failed the germans, liberalism was associated with the countries that had defeated them

48

gestapo

the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. administered by the SS. sent jews to the camps

49

Authoritarian

control of the government by authority

50

2 types of totalitarianism

fascism and communism

51

fascism developed from a fear of...

communism

52

ultranationalism is a technique of

fascism

53

the 1917 october revolution in russia lead to____ in Russia

communism

54

2 main fascists:

mussolini and hitler

55

under tight control under fascism:

economy, government, and national policy

56

worship the leader while giving up individualism in favour of collective identity is...

fascism

57

what really lead to the decline of liberal democracy after WWI?

political instability and great depression

58

Thomas Caryle and Friedrich Nietzsche believed...

the perfect government needed a "great man," "super-man," only superior people can achieve anything worthwhile (although, nietzsche believed that democracy did create equality while caryle hated democracy)

59

how did new dictators dictator from past ones?

more technology, would not maintain the status quo, new ideology

60

crisis theory

all historical events in human history are triggered by various crises

61

humans are rational

communism

62

proletariat

communism (the working class)

63

nationalization

communism (from private to state ownership)

64

militarianism

fascism

65

expansionist

fascism

66

"russia" evolution from 1922

Russian Empire to USSR to Russian Federation

67

new economic policy

introduced to revive russia from economic reccesions, allowed peasent to own farm land and small private bussinesses, very succesful, famine eliminated

68

Dictatorship of the proletariat

refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power. the centralized government would be elected by the workers and then control all aspects of life

69

five year plans (quinquenal plan)

stalinès economic policy; purpose was to lead the USSR to increased industralization and to collectivize the country, prepare against war against nazi germany, many were purged and terrorized during this time

70

great purge

purges carried out by the secret police (NKVD), anyone against Stalin was dealt with, many sent to the Gulag

71

big businesses w/ Nazi economy

wealthy industrialists co-operated with the state to strengthen the military, the state prevents labour unions from disrupting industrial protection

72

autarky

a country, state, or society that is economically depandent. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade.

73

hitler on feminism:

disagreed with it, women in the house, need to make babies, shouldn't be in politics

74

literacy rate went ___ under stalin

up

75

scapegoats of USSR and Nazi Germany?

kulaks and Jews

76

was russia ahead or behind in industralization?

behind

77

why did the russians turn to lenin?

the workers were struggling under Alexander III so with the Bolsheviks behind him, the october revolution occured and they took over russia

78

bloody sunday

russians marched to czar to present a petition asking for rights, were gunned down which made them mad which lead to the russian revolution

79

russian revolution

reaction to an unjust czarist system and capitalism which exploited the proletariat, civil war in Russia, and by 1924 russia was the USSR

80

democratic centralism

issues are discussed bottom up, used by stalin to purge opression; a method of leadership in which political decisions reached by the party (through its democratically elected bodies) are binding upon all members of the party.

81

russian secret police

Cheka, (Lenin) NKVD, (stalin) KGB

82

stalin had a power struggle with

Trotsky

83

economy under hitler

less unemployed, more roads, workers didnt have rights, couples got paid for having kids

84

lebensraum

the territory that a state or nation believes is needed for its natural development, especially associated with Nazi Germany.