What are the 3 congenital components associated with Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome?
Elongated Soft Palate (Largest Contributor)
What acquired malformation can appear in patients with Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome that requires surgical intervention?
Everted Laryngeal Saccules
What is Stertor?
A loud, turbulant inspiratory breathing that occurs due to an obstructed upper airway (soft palate, mechanical obsruction, mass, etc)
How do we diagnose BCAS?
Signalment and Breed
Compatible Clinical Signs
Chest X-rays (Evaluate for Hypoplastic Trachea)
Sedated Oral Exam
What drugs should be avoided during an upper airway exam for suspected BCAS?
Any drug that affects laryngeal function (Diazepam, Ketamine, Acepromazine, large doses of Mu-Agonists)
What drug can be used to improve the rate and strength of respiration while conducting an upper airway exam for suspected BCAS?
Doxapram (CNS Stimulant)
What surgical procedure is performed to fix the elongated soft palate associated with BCAS?
Staphylectomy (Soft Palate Resection)
What Staphylectomy post-operative complication is associated with removal of too much tissue?
What procedure is performed to address the Stenotic Nares associated with BCAS?
What surgical procedure must be performed if a BCAS patient progresses to laryngeal collapse?
What post-operative complication is associated with removal of laryngeal saccules? What prophylactic treatment do we give for this and how can we address it if it is seen?
Significant inflammation (edema and swelling) can obstruct the airway.
Pretreat the animal with a steroid to minimize inflammation before it happens
If inflammation is observed, you can either keep the patient intubated and under light anesthesia until the swelling resolves or put in a temporary tracheostomy tube
What is the white tissue seen in the following image?
Everted Laryngeal Saccule