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Flashcards in Brain Deck (36):
1

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)- “The Command Center”
Functions:

• Attention
• Planning
• Impulse control
• Judgement
• Empathy

2

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)- “The Command Center”
Problems:

• Failure to see consequences.
• Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (which leads to difficulties in learning).
• Addictions: 60-80% of addicts have prefrontal lobe deficits.
• Lack of organization ability.

3

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)- “The Command Center”
Helping PFC effectivity work:


• Multivitamin
• Fish Oil
• Eliminate caffeine
• Exercise
• Eat higher protein diet

4

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)- “The Command Center”
Medications:


• Methylphenidate. (Ritalin)
• Dexmethylphenidate.
• Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine. (Adderall)

5

Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)- “The Command Center”
Supplements:


• L-tyrosine.
• Ginkgo Biloba.
• D-phenylalanine and L-phenylalanine.
• Protein Powder.
• EXERCISE.

6

Cingulate Gyrus- “The Gerbil Wheel”
Functions:


• Flexibility
• Forgiveness
• Ability to notice good
• See positive
• See options


7

Cingulate Gyrus- “The Gerbil Wheel”
Problems:


• Oppositional defiant disorder
• Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
• Eating disorders/some addictions

8

Cingulate Gyrus “the gerbil Wheel”
Helping Cingulate Gyrus effectively work:


• Pasta, potatoes, bread, candy—increase Seratonin (like grease on rusty hinge)
• Chicken, turkey, salmon, beef—-increase Seratonin
• Low carb diet—decreases Seratonin (equals Cranky)

9

Cingulate Gyrus “the gerbil Wheel”
Medications:


• Buspar, SSRI’s, Zoloft, Prozac.

10

Cingulate Gyrus “the gerbil Wheel”
Supplements:


• L-tryptophan,
5-HTP,
St. John’s Wort.

11

Basil Ganglia- “The Basement of Fears”
Functions:


• Sets body to relax
• Control smooth movement
• Sets anxiety level
• Helps predict what will happen
• Attunes us to our environment

12

Basil Ganglia- “The Basement of Fears”
Problems:

• Anxiety, panic and phobias
• Hyper-vigilance
• Post-traumatic stress disorder
• Predicting worst
• Excessive worry

13

Basil Ganglia- “The Basement of Fears”
Helping Basil Ganglia effectivity work:

• Complex carbs/ food with tryptophan increase serotonin.
• Cut the caffeine.
• Hydrate: dehydration can cause anxiety.

14

Basil Ganglia- “The Basement of Fears”
Supplements:


• Take a multivitamin
• Exercise
• Drink (water).

15

The Deep Limbic System- “The Depressed Low-Mood Space”
Functions:


• Hope feelings
• Restorative sleep
• Strong self-esteem
• Bonding and close connection to other.
• Optimism

16

The Deep Limbic System- “The Depressed Low-Mood Space”
Problems:


• Depression
• Isolation
• Difficulty sleeping and getting up
• Lack of motivation
• Low energy
• Weight gain or loss
False religion can make it worse- pretending*

17

The Deep Limbic System- “The Depressed Low-Mood Space”
Supplements:


• Fish oil, L-tyrosine, 5HTP, Tryptophan, SAMe, GABA
• Light therapy
• Exercise

18

The Temporal Lobes- “The Temper Lofts”
Functions:


• Language and hearing
• Emotional stability
• Reading information and faces
• Visual learning
• Spiritual experiences

19

The Temporal Lobes- “The Temper Lofts”
Problems:


• Mood instability
• Anxiety for no reason
• Learning problems
• Dark, evil or hopeless thoughts
• Aggression towards self or others
• Over-focused on religion
• Verbal and abusive problems such as belittling others, name calling and critical judgmental

20

The Temporal Lobes- “The Temper Lofts”
Medications:


• Lithium Carbonate
• Anticonvulsant Mood Stabilizers
• Antipsychotic Mood Stabilizers

21

The Temporal Lobes- “The Temper Lofts”
Supplements:


• GABA
• Valerian
• Omega-3 fish oil
• Alpha Lipoic Acid
• phosphatidylserine
Ginkgo Bilbao
Low dose ibuprofen

22

Rule #1: Exercise boosts brain power


• Exercise is better than antidepressants- may stave off Alzheimer’s.
• Exercise- grows your brain cells:
​• Neurotransmitters balance with exercise

Exercise improves three things:
• Optimizes the brain for alertness, attention and motivation
• Prepares and encourages nerve cells to bind with each other
• Spurs development of new cells from stem cells to new cells in the hippocampus

23

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)- the miracle grow of the brain increases with exercise- BDNF- grows neurons connections- the more exercise, the more BDNF you get.

24

Neurotransmitters

Serotonin- mood, anger, aggressiveness
​Norepinephrine- mood, attention, motivation, arousal
​Dopamine- learning, reward, attention (Ritalin raises dopamine)
​GABA- increased calm and relaxation

25

Rule #2: The brain remembers emotional and meaningful experiences

• The more emotional and the more meaningful an experience, the more it will be remembered.
• Trauma is remembered and things that connect with survival are remembered.

26

ule #3: Every brain learns differently

• When we learn something- the wiring in our brain changes

27

Rule #4: We don’t pay attention to things that are boring


• Michael Posner’s Theory:
​Intrinsic alertness- just noticing
​Phasic alertness- more specific
​Orienting network- “oh my, what should I do now”
• Emotionally charged event (ECS)- emotions are to move us to do something- the amygdala releases dopamine into the system which says, “REMEMBER THIS”

28

Rule #5: Repeat to Remember
Four steps of memory​



1. Encoding
2. Storage
3. Retrieval
4. Forgetting

29

Rule #6: Remember to repeat
• Three parts of short term memory


1. Auditory
2. Visual
3. Executive

30

Type of memory


1. Echoic memory- sound
2. Iconic memory- sight
3. Tactual memory- touch

31

Rule #7: Sleep well, learn well


1. The brain is in a constant state of tension between cells and chemicals that try to put you to sleep and cells and chemicals that try to keep you awake.
2. The neurons of your brain show vigorous rhythmical activity when you are asleep- perhaps replaying what you learned that day***
3. People vary in how much sleep they need and when they prefer to get it, but the biological drive for an afternoon nap is universal.
4. Loss of sleep hurts attention, executive, function, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning, and even motor dexterity.

32

Rule #8: Stressed brains don’t learn the same way


• Your body’s defense system- release of adrenaline (epinephrine) and cortisol is built for an immediate response to a serious but passing danger, such as a car accident*** Chronic stress, such as hostility at home, dangerously deregulates a system built only to deal with short-term responses.
• Individually, the worst kind of stress is the feeling that you have no control over the problem- you are helpless.
• Emotional stress has huge impacts across society on children’s ability to learn in school and on employee’s productivity at work.

33

Rule #9: Vision trumps the other senses in taking in and remembering information


• Vision is by far our most dominant sense, taking up half of our brain’s resources.
• What we see is only what our brain tells us we see, and it’s not 100% accurate***

34

Rule #10: Stimulate the senses to learn


• The most power sense is smell- directly wired to the amygdala. The amygdala stimulates and brings from memory emotional experiences.

35

Serotonin/Melatonin Pathway

Serotonin/Melatonin Pathway
Tryptophan ​​Tryptamine

B3
5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)

​B6, Vitamin C
Serotonin ​5- hydroxyindole
​​acetaldehyde

N-acetylserotonin
​SAMe​5- HIAA

36

PEA, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine Pathway



​B6
L-Phenylalanine ​Phenylethylamine
​(PEA)
L-Tyrosine​Tyramine

L-DOPA
​B6
Dopamine​DOPAL ​DOPAC
Vitamin C

Norepinephrine
​SAMe
Epinephrine