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Flashcards in Brain anatomy Deck (50):
1

Understand the functional organisation of the nervous system into central and peripheral nervous systems. 

2

Define and appropriately use the descriptive anatomical terms: superior, inferior, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, distal, anterior, posterior, deep, superficial, medial, lateral, dorsal, ventral, rostral and caudal. 

Because the human brain ‘flexes 90*

at around the level of the midbrain, the superior part of the hemisphere is actually dorsal. The inferior brain is actually ventral 

3

Remember that in imaging, right and left are reversed !

4

Sulci, gyri and fissures 

why do we have sulcus?

Sulcus: A ‘groove or furrow’ in the brain separating adjacent gyri

Gyrus  A ‘ridge or fold’ in the brain
Fissure: A deeper sulcus , A large ‘crack’ or ‘split’ between adjacent large areas of the brain 

 

 

Cuz we need to fit as much cerebral coretex as much as we can 

5

what r the major divisions of the brain?

  • 􏰀Forebrain - cerebrum and diencephalon
  • Midbrain- Pons and Medulla
  • Hindbrain - pons, medulla and cerebellum

6

shade and functions of each

midbrain,pons,medulla, thalamus and hypothalamus

state which ones r mesencephalon, metacephelon, diencephelon

pons is preganat (buldging) & pregger women r sleepy and want to eat all the time

7

which part of the brain contains the major motor pathways?

8

paired cerbebral hemisoheres cover and protect the diencephelon & first part of brainstem!

 

like a mushroom covering the stalk

9

explain the

regeneration, sophistication, myelination, tumor types and immunity of 

CNS & PNS

10

body is controlled by the _________side of the brain  

body is controlled by the contralateral side of the brain  

11

Label the precentral and post central gyrus, name of sulcus that seperates them apart?

 

whats a function of this sulcus

their gyrus looks like Sausages!

12

lobes of brain

13

where do the motor strucutres sit?

Anterior

"i MOVE forward"

14

Label the Optic chiasm, Uncus, Pyramids 

function of each!

15

functions of thalamus

16

what is the corpus callosum, thalmus?

functions?

17

functions of corpus callosum

18

Relate the topographical structures of the brain, brainstem and cerebellum to

the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae. 

19

label functional areas of cortex on the brain!

20

what is white matter in CNS composed of?

  • 􏰀  Corpus callosum
  • 􏰀  Anterior and posterior commissures 

21

describet he landmarks that sepertaes the lobes from each other

22

the ________rests inferiorly upon the _______________which segregates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.

the occipital lobe rests inferiorly upon the tentorium cerebelli which segregates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.

23

the cerebrum is derived from the__________

the cerebrum is derived from the telencephalon.

24

Calcarine sulcus 

The calcarine sulcus is where the primary visual cortex (V1) is concentrated.

25

2 main fissures of brain

Longitudinal fissure

􏰀Lateral fissure

26

name of curved fold that covers the corpus callosum?

The cingulate gyrus 

It is a component of the limbic system and involved in processing emotions and behavior regulation

27

  • 􏰀  Lateral ventricle (there is one on each side)
  • 􏰀  Septum pellucidum
  • 􏰀  Fornix (partofthe limbicsystem)
  • 􏰀  Third ventricle
  • 􏰀  Cerebral aqueduct
  • 􏰀  Fourth ventricle

28

fucntions of the ventricles?

hollow structure filled with CSF and lined by ependymal cells,

which form a structure called the choroid plexus.

It is within the choroid plexus that CSF is produced!

29

what connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th?

cerebral aqueduct!

30

components of Diencephalon 

  • Thalamus 
  • 􏰀  Hypothalamus
  • 􏰀  Pineal gland
  • 􏰀  Pituitary gland and pituitary stalk 

31

what connects cerebellum to structures of brainstem?

cerebellar peduncles

32

At what part of the central nervous system do the motor fibres arising from the primary motor cortex cross to the opposite side (decussate)? 

Medullary pyramids!

both motor and sensory cross!

33

What dense connective tissue structure (within the real skull and brain) is found

(i) running the length of the (medial) longitudinal fissure?

(ii) running between the inferior part of the occipital lobes and the cerebellum Below? 

34

Label>> which side is the arrow pointing

which meningeal layers runs into the sulci, covering every fold of the cortex. 

btw which layers of the meninges would cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) be found? 

lateral ventricles (left side)

pia!

sub-arachnoid space

35

functions of cerebellum

 it is active in the

  1. coordination of motor function
  2. coordination of balance
  3. coordination of balance

 

36

Describe functions of the Homunculus 

think of it as someone hanging mn fog

37

where does spinal cord begin?

Begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata

once it passes through FORAMEN MAGNUM!

38

location of straight sinus

runs in the margins of the tentorium cerebelli

39

MRI label

-4th ventricle

-nasal cavity

-motor and somatosensory regions

 

40

label the diff lobes and bones

nasal cavity

petrous part of temoral lobe

zygoma (frontol process)

41

Label the colored structures and state their functions

42

What is th eqauda equina?

a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlet

 r made of dorsal and ventral roots
Just cus ur in the vertebral canal,, doesn't mean that ur in the cns!

43

Grey matter vs white matter,

why is each coloured so?

    

44

Why is mylein white?

Cuz its a mixture of fat and water, 
Just like mayonnaise

45

define Nucleus, Cortex , Fibre 

• Nucleus (grey matter): a collection of functionally related cell bodies

• Cortex (grey matter): a folded sheet of cell bodies found on the

surface of a brain structure. 

• Fibre (white matter): a term relating to an axon in association with its supporting cells (e.g. oligodendrocytes). Used synonymously with ’axon’ 

46

different fibers of the CNS

47

label and give functio of coloured areas

48

The superior colliculus is part of which structure? 

the colliculi sit on the dorsal aspect of the midbrain (and form Mickey mouse’s chin) 

49

label and state function

Optic chiasm, Uncus, Medullary pyramids, Parahippocampal gyrus

50

what is Crus cerebri> location and function

mickey mouses ear connect the cerebral hemispheres to the brainstem?