Understand the functional organisation of the nervous system into central and peripheral nervous systems.
Define and appropriately use the descriptive anatomical terms: superior, inferior, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, distal, anterior, posterior, deep, superficial, medial, lateral, dorsal, ventral, rostral and caudal.
Because the human brain ‘flexes 90*
at around the level of the midbrain, the superior part of the hemisphere is actually dorsal. The inferior brain is actually ventral
Remember that in imaging, right and left are reversed !
Sulci, gyri and fissures
why do we have sulcus?
Sulcus: A ‘groove or furrow’ in the brain separating adjacent gyri
Gyrus A ‘ridge or fold’ in the brain
Fissure: A deeper sulcus , A large ‘crack’ or ‘split’ between adjacent large areas of the brain
Cuz we need to fit as much cerebral coretex as much as we can
what r the major divisions of the brain?
- Forebrain - cerebrum and diencephalon
Midbrain- Pons and Medulla
Hindbrain - pons, medulla and cerebellum
shade and functions of each
midbrain,pons,medulla, thalamus and hypothalamus
state which ones r mesencephalon, metacephelon, diencephelon
pons is preganat (buldging) & pregger women r sleepy and want to eat all the time
which part of the brain contains the major motor pathways?
paired cerbebral hemisoheres cover and protect the diencephelon & first part of brainstem!
like a mushroom covering the stalk
regeneration, sophistication, myelination, tumor types and immunity of
CNS & PNS
body is controlled by the _________side of the brain
body is controlled by the contralateral side of the brain
Label the precentral and post central gyrus, name of sulcus that seperates them apart?
whats a function of this sulcus
their gyrus looks like Sausages!
lobes of brain
where do the motor strucutres sit?
"i MOVE forward"
Label the Optic chiasm, Uncus, Pyramids
function of each!
functions of thalamus
what is the corpus callosum, thalmus?
functions of corpus callosum
Relate the topographical structures of the brain, brainstem and cerebellum to
the anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossae.
label functional areas of cortex on the brain!
what is white matter in CNS composed of?
- Corpus callosum
- Anterior and posterior commissures
describet he landmarks that sepertaes the lobes from each other
the ________rests inferiorly upon the _______________which segregates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
the occipital lobe rests inferiorly upon the tentorium cerebelli which segregates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
the cerebrum is derived from the__________
the cerebrum is derived from the telencephalon.
The calcarine sulcus is where the primary visual cortex (V1) is concentrated.
2 main fissures of brain
name of curved fold that covers the corpus callosum?
The cingulate gyrus
It is a component of the limbic system and involved in processing emotions and behavior regulation
- Lateral ventricle (there is one on each side)
- Septum pellucidum
- Fornix (partofthe limbicsystem)
- Third ventricle
- Cerebral aqueduct
- Fourth ventricle
fucntions of the ventricles?
hollow structure filled with CSF and lined by ependymal cells,
which form a structure called the choroid plexus.
It is within the choroid plexus that CSF is produced!
what connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th?
components of Diencephalon
- Pineal gland
- Pituitary gland and pituitary stalk
what connects cerebellum to structures of brainstem?
At what part of the central nervous system do the motor fibres arising from the primary motor cortex cross to the opposite side (decussate)?
both motor and sensory cross!
What dense connective tissue structure (within the real skull and brain) is found
(i) running the length of the (medial) longitudinal fissure?
(ii) running between the inferior part of the occipital lobes and the cerebellum Below?
Label>> which side is the arrow pointing
which meningeal layers runs into the sulci, covering every fold of the cortex.
btw which layers of the meninges would cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) be found?
lateral ventricles (left side)
functions of cerebellum
it is active in the
- coordination of motor function
- coordination of balance
- coordination of balance
Describe functions of the Homunculus
think of it as someone hanging mn fog
where does spinal cord begin?
Begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata
once it passes through FORAMEN MAGNUM!
location of straight sinus
runs in the margins of the tentorium cerebelli
-motor and somatosensory regions
label the diff lobes and bones
petrous part of temoral lobe
zygoma (frontol process)
Label the colored structures and state their functions
What is th eqauda equina?
a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlet
r made of dorsal and ventral roots
Just cus ur in the vertebral canal,, doesn't mean that ur in the cns!
Grey matter vs white matter,
why is each coloured so?
Why is mylein white?
Cuz its a mixture of fat and water,
Just like mayonnaise
define Nucleus, Cortex , Fibre
• Nucleus (grey matter): a collection of functionally related cell bodies
• Cortex (grey matter): a folded sheet of cell bodies found on the
surface of a brain structure.
• Fibre (white matter): a term relating to an axon in association with its supporting cells (e.g. oligodendrocytes). Used synonymously with ’axon’
different fibers of the CNS
label and give functio of coloured areas
The superior colliculus is part of which structure?
the colliculi sit on the dorsal aspect of the midbrain (and form Mickey mouse’s chin)
label and state function
Optic chiasm, Uncus, Medullary pyramids, Parahippocampal gyrus
what is Crus cerebri> location and function
mickey mouses ear connect the cerebral hemispheres to the brainstem?