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Flashcards in Brainscape flashcards for VVPM readings references Deck (33):
1

What is the new moral imperative of school leadership? (Fullan, ______)

The moral imperative of the principal involves leading deep cultural change that mobilizes the passion and commitment of teachers, parents, and others to improve the learning of all students, including closing the achivement gap. (Fullan, 2003)

2

What does relational trust facilitate? (Who, when?)

As a social resource for school improvement, relational trust facilitates the development of beliefs, values, organisational routines, and individual behaviours that instrumentally affect students' engagement and learning. (Bryk and Schneider, 2002)

3

What did Murdoch (1992) say about vision?

Truthful vision prompts right action

4

What should vision provide schools with?

a means of looking forward with some assurance, whatever the various and immediate demands being made in the name of an unknowable future (Ungoed-Thomas, 1996)

5

What problems with educational effectiveness by Creemers and Reezigt (1999)

1.Hard to relate small proportion of variance accounted for by schools and classrooms to specific set of factors.
2. research often seems full of contradictory evidence (eg homework sometimes positive and sometimes negatively related to outcomes).
3. Even when some effectiveness factors achieve the effects that they are suppoised to achieve, these effects are not stable but change over time. 1.Hard to relate small proportion of variance accounted for by schools and classrooms to specific set of factors.
2. research often seems full of contradictory evidence (eg homework sometimes positive and sometimes negatively related to outcomes).
3. Even when some effectiveness factors achieve the effects that they are suppoised to achieve, these effects are not stable but change over time. 1.Hard to relate small proportion of variance accounted for by schools and classrooms to specific set of factors.
2. research often seems full of contradictory evidence (eg homework sometimes positive and sometimes negatively related to outcomes).
3. Even when some effectiveness factors achieve the effects that they are suppoised to achieve, these effects are not stable but change over time.

6

What ways deal with the problems in educational effectiveness that need tackling (Creemers and Reesigt, 1999)?

1. focus on interactions between factors within and across levels, comparable with aptitude-treatment interactions in earlier research. (but this would contradict theory that some evts are more effective than others)
2. introduce feedback loops in educational effectiveness model (schl for disadvantaged may need different policies in affluent neighbourhoods) - (but this requires clarify about crucial characteristics which should be taken into account)
3. split up the factors in the model into more detailed factors (to enable operationalisation of variables in more detail and stop working with broadly defined concepts) - (but if studying multiple factors, this detail will cause proliferation of unstable effects).
4. study the formal criteria in more detail.
5. searching for concepts beyond the formal criteria int he model. 1. focus on interactions between factors within and across levels, comparable with aptitude-treatment interactions in earlier research. (but this would contradict theory that some evts are more effective than others)
2. introduce feedback loops in educational effectiveness model (schl for disadvantaged may need different policies in affluent neighbourhoods) - (but this requires clarify about crucial characteristics which should be taken into account)
3. split up the factors in the model into more detailed factors (to enable operationalisation of variables in more detail and stop working with broadly defined concepts) - (but if studying multiple factors, this detail will cause proliferation of unstable effects).
4. study the formal criteria in more detail.
5. searching for concepts beyond the formal criteria int he model. 1. focus on interactions between factors within and across levels, comparable with aptitude-treatment interactions in earlier research. (but this would contradict theory that some evts are more effective than others)
2. introduce feedback loops in educational effectiveness model (schl for disadvantaged may need different policies in affluent neighbourhoods) - (but this requires clarify about crucial characteristics which should be taken into account)
3. split up the factors in the model into more detailed factors (to enable operationalisation of variables in more detail and stop working with broadly defined concepts) - (but if studying multiple factors, this detail will cause proliferation of unstable effects).
4. study the formal criteria in more detail.
5. searching for concepts beyond the formal criteria int he model.

7

What are the 3 national level educational goals Labaree (???)

1. the citizens perspective: democratic equality (eg: Scandinavia)
2. the taxpayer's & employer's perspective: social efficacy (eg. USA, Europe)
3. the consumer's perspective: social mobility
(1997) 1. the citizens perspective: democratic equality (eg: Scandinavia)
2. the taxpayer's & employer's perspective: social efficacy (eg. USA, Europe)
3. the consumer's perspective: social mobility
(1997) 1. the citizens perspective: democratic equality (eg: Scandinavia)
2. the taxpayer's & employer's perspective: social efficacy (eg. USA, Europe)
3. the consumer's perspective: social mobility
(1997)

8

Learning enriched vs learning impoverished (who, when?)

Learning enriched: environments within which teachers hold positive attitudes towards their school and share collaborative goals.
Learning impoverished: schools without a mission. Environments where there are no clear goals or shared values, teachers work in isolation, do not communicate about educational topics and tend to perceive their school tasks as routines.Learning enriched: environments within which teachers hold positive attitudes towards their school and share collaborative goals.
Learning impoverished: schools without a mission. Environments where there are no clear goals or shared values, teachers work in isolation, do not communicate about educational topics and tend to perceive their school tasks as routines.Learning enriched: environments within which teachers hold positive attitudes towards their school and share collaborative goals.
Learning impoverished: schools without a mission. Environments where there are no clear goals or shared values, teachers work in isolation, do not communicate about educational topics and tend to perceive their school tasks as routines.

9

School leaders should not just runt heir organisations efficiently, but should also especially focus on providing… (Slater & Teddlie, 1992)

…the conditions for the school's primary processes

10

School leaders should function as a _____ _______ of classroom processes, act as a ______ for teachers, and initate staff _________ (????,????)

School leaders should function as a meta-controller of classroom processes, act as a counsellor for teachers, and initate staff professionalisation (Scheerens & Bosker, 1997)

11

school climate refers to the ______ of schools (???)

school climate refers to the personality of schools (Hoy, 1990)

12

Climate has recently broadened to encompass the school ______

Climate has recently broadened to encompass the school culture as well, by which the values, beliefs, and norms of a school, as well as the way in which the school staff behave and interact (Scheerens & Bosker, 1997; Stolp, 1994)

13

The importance of vision-related concepts at the school level for student outcomes has fairly often been demonstrated in research such as ???

(Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Scheerens & Bosker, 1997)

14

Principal leadership has relatively stronger effects on in-school ______ than on _______.

Principal leadership has relatively stronger effects on in-school processes than on outcomes. (Hallinger and Heck, 1996)

15

Principal learship that makes a difference is aimed toward influencing internal school ______ that are ______ linked to student learning. These internal processes range from school _____ and _____ to practices of ________.

Principal learship that makes a difference is aimed toward influencing internal school processes tjat are directly linked to student learning. These internal processes range from school policies and norms to practices of teachers. (Hallinger and Heck, 1996)

16

Teachers with a sense of efficacy believe in ability to have positive effect on student learning and are convinced they can actively influence how well student learn (?????)

Guskey & Passaro, 1994

17

To understand fully the mechanisms which promote or hinder student learning, a vision on education needs the ___________, __________ and ________ dimensions (???)

To understand fully the mechanisms which promote or hinder student learning, a vision on education needs the pedagogical, psychological (how students actually learn and develop) and sociological (why some students learn less than others due to their backgrounds) dimensions (Creemers & Reesigt, 1999)

18

Moos (??) defines school climate as the _________ atmosphere of the learning environment in which students have different _________ according to the protocols set up by _______ and ____________

Moos (1979) defines school climate as the social atmosphere of the learning environment in which students have different experiences according to the protocols set up by teachers and administrators

19

Harris (???) defines ethos as the set of __________ between _____ and the ___, and between _______

Harris (2001) defines ethos as the set of relationships between leaders and the led, and between colleagues

20

Donelly (????) descibes ethos as distinctive range of _____ and ______ which define the _________ or ____________ of the organisation

Donelly (2000) descibes ethos as distinctive range of values and beliefs which define the philosophy or atmosphere of the organisation

21

Donelly (???) describes ehtos as a _________ term

Donelly (2000) describes ehtos as a nebulous term

22

Potter et al (???) define ethos as the __________ and ___________ of the ____ by which the school functions as an organisation and as such is directed towards the nature of interpersonal relationships.

Potter et al (2002) define ethos as the development and dissemination of the values by which the school functions as an organisation and as such is directed towards the nature of interpersonal relationships.

23

According to Peterson & Deal (>????) culture is the underground stream of ____, _____, ______, ________ and _____ that has built up over time as people work together, solve _______ and confront __________.
This set of _______ expectations and values shapes how people think, feel and act in schools.According to Peterson & Deal (>????) culture is the underground stream of ____, _____, ______, ________ and _____ that has built up over time as people work together, solve _______ and confront __________.
This set of _______ expectations and values shapes how people think, feel and act in schools.

According to Peterson & Deal (1998) culture is the underground stream of norms, values, beliefs, traditions, and rituals that has built up over time as people work together, solve problems and confront challenges.
This set of informal expectations and values shapes how people think, feel and act in schools.According to Peterson & Deal (1998) culture is the underground stream of norms, values, beliefs, traditions, and rituals that has built up over time as people work together, solve problems and confront challenges.
This set of informal expectations and values shapes how people think, feel and act in schools.

24

Hargreaves (???) articulates culture as the particular interplay of social _____ (rule and regulation mentality) and social ______ (team spirit) whithin a school.

Hargreaves (1995) articulates culture as the particular interplay of social control (rule and regulation mentality) and social cohesion (team spirit) whithin a school.

25

Glover & Coleman (???) summise that climate is the measurable ____ and _______ features of the school experience

Glover & Coleman (2005) summise that climate is the measurable input and outcome features of the school experience

26

Glover & Coleman (2005) summise that ethos is the more subjective _____ and ________ underpinning policy and practice

Glover & Coleman (2005) summise that ethos is the more subjective values and principles underpinning policy and practice

27

Glover & Coleman (2005) summise that culture is the integration of ___________, __________ and _____________ features of school existence to offer a context for teaching and learning, and its subsequent improvement.

Glover & Coleman (2005) summise that culture is the integration of environmental, organisational and experiential features of school existence to offer a context for teaching and learning, and its subsequent improvement.

28

Handy and Aitken 4 element typology of schools (1986)

-club culture (spiders web-informal club of like-minded people whose task is to achive the mission of the head who is at the centre of things)
-role culture (pyramid - job-boxes coordinated to execute the work of the organisation, which the head manages through formal system and procedures of bureaucratic kind)
-task culture (grid - friendly matrix of variably composed groups and teams which achieve range of planned tasks to solve organisational problemd)
-person culture (cluster - minimally organised resource fo the development of its members' tablents and exercise of their skills) -club culture (spiders web-informal club of like-minded people whose task is to achive the mission of the head who is at the centre of things)
-role culture (pyramid - job-boxes coordinated to execute the work of the organisation, which the head manages through formal system and procedures of bureaucratic kind)
-task culture (grid - friendly matrix of variably composed groups and teams which achieve range of planned tasks to solve organisational problemd)
-person culture (cluster - minimally organised resource fo the development of its members' tablents and exercise of their skills)

29

Handy and Aitken (????) say successful schools get the right ____ of the 4 element typology of schools at the right time

Handy and Aitken (1986) say successful schools get the right mix at the right time.

30

Democratic practices such as _____, _________ and shared ownership of __________, are create the goods of the community such as liyalty, belonging snd trust (Crittenden, ????)

Democratic practices such as voice, participation and shared ownership of decisions, are create the goods of the community such as liyalty, belonging snd trust (Crittenden, 1992)

31

The structure of relations (in democratic) should be the _____ rather than the ledder (???????, undated)

The structure of relations (in democratic) should be the loop rather than the ledder (Beddoe, undated)

32

Why more democratic schools be more effective than bureaucratic/authoritarian ones?
(???? And ????, 2005)Why more democratic schools be more effective than bureaucratic/authoritarian ones?
(???? And ????, 2005)

1. Rules are better kept by staff and students if democratically agreed to in the first place.
2. Communications in the school are improved through regular discussion.
3. There is an increased sense of responsibility as staff and students have more control over their organisation.
4. Decision-making is improved as a range of internal and external interests and opinions is considered.
(Harber and Davies, 2005) 1. Rules are better kept by staff and students if democratically agreed to in the first place.
2. Communications in the school are improved through regular discussion.
3. There is an increased sense of responsibility as staff and students have more control over their organisation.
4. Decision-making is improved as a range of internal and external interests and opinions is considered.
(Harber and Davies, 2005)

33

Some advantages and disadvantages in schools in Tanzania (???, ???)

ADVANTAGES: Reduces workload for teachers, discipline problems reduced as students closer with teachers, can resolve problems before escalate (including strikes), trains the students,
DISADVANTAGES: time-consuming, not perfectly working all the time,
(Harber, 1993)