withdrawal from India
‘jewel of empirical crown’ + one of biggest parts of empire
would lead to economic problems ( exports of silk + spices + cotton )
marks retreat from empire
first country to gain independence ( part of decolonisation movement)
under the Attlee govt.
1951 ( nuclear deterrent…)
Attlee committed to Nuclear D (Labour policy)
Led to formation of CND - want brits 2 reject it
was UK’s largest pressure group - drew in many left-wing labour politicians
but ! was one of only ways of remaining a major world power !
1952 - 1960 (Mau Mau)
start of MM rebellion !
violent nationalist uprising (Kenya) against colonial rule
Leader Jomo Kenyatta later emerges as PM post imprisonment by brit authorities
bitter on both sides
Kenya : atrocities
Britain : brutal treatment @ Hola camp !
demonstrates problems w/ Brit colonial policies
Kenyan independence movement ( sparks African decolonisation! )
1954 ( Suez pt 1 )
British withdrawal from Egypt
Egyptian independence under NATIONALIST leader Colonel Nasser
1955 ( Messina )
Messina conference !!
shape taking of the EEC
British delegation = present but doesn’t join, only observes
meeting of Benelux + Italy + Germany + France
proposes more EU integration !
1956 ! Suez pt 2 : - (
FAILURE OF INTERVENTION
details were withheld from USA
USA would not lend wonga w/o our backing out + ceasefire
USA = were an opp 2 the motion so we fell in2 financial crisis
decolonisation = considered as we are questioned over status as a world power ! (undermining)
1956 ( Hungary ! )
west ignores ! too focused on the SC + allow for Soviet powers to regain control ( unaware of spread of communism)
1957 ( Ghana ! )
starts of chain of African independence
1957 ( EEC)
formed by the treaty of Rome
dominated by Germany + France
Charles De Gaulle vetoe’s our application ! as he wants to protect it from ‘les - anglo saxons ‘
USA were keen on Britain joining as they saw us as an economic bridge between europe + states so lowkey pissed when we rejected
Led 2 EFTA !
the outer countries ( portugal , Uk , spain etc etc)
was moderately successful + but couldn’t compare w/ success of trade w/in EEC
1960 ( Blue Streak missile programme )
we failed ! ( our contribution 2 the space race)
were abt. 2 use uninhabited land in Cumbria but couldn’t ! but we are a small island + leaves towns + villages vulnerable 2 nuclear damage !
also we were to enthusiastic ,already started paying for shiz b4 silos were built !
1960 ( Mac : WOC )
winds of change !
change of policy
wants recognition of independence movements + decolonisation
encourages majority rule !
SA : seems 2 prefer minority white rule + later vote in referendum 2 cut all ties w/ UK
1960 ( independence of NIGERIA + CYPRUS )
- due 2 African colonisation movement
- Cyprus gains FULL sovereignty
1961 ( SA say bye to commonwealth )
wanted 2 become Republic
was a forced exist
pst pressure bc apartheid policies still bangin on !
1963 independence granted 2 Kenya
- lots of agitation surrounding Kenyatta’s freedom
- became Republic w/ Kenyatta’s as first president
- join commonwealth !
1963 : Rejection of Brit letter 2 join EEC
rejection by inner 6
say its too much of a compromise 2 keep affairs w/ commonwealth + maintain special relationship w/ USA AS WELL AS join EEC
Brit + France have bad relationship for time !
Brit = no longer a world power
embarassment ( cah UK was mad optimistic of joining ! )