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Flashcards in bs2 2 Deck (32):
1

When DNA exists as two strands, twined around one another, this is called?

double helix

2

This second strand is called? It runs parallel (3’ 5’) to the first. Attracted to first hydrogen bonding between nucleotide bases.

antiparallell

3

This type of bond attracts bases that correspond with one another. As an example, Cytosine selectively attracts with guanine. Thymine selectively attracts adenine.

complementary

4

What is the name to the original strand (5’ 􏱹􏱹􏱹􏱹 3’) called?

informational strand

5

What is the strand called with complementary base pairs (3’ 􏱹􏱹􏱹􏱹 5’)?

complementary strand or template strand

6

If A = T, then c = ? must equal?

G. Base pairs are alphabetized, first and last go together, the middle is the middle.

7

This provides an easy way for DNA to replicate itself: in DNA replication, the two strands split apart and an enzyme called DNA polymerase attaches itself to one strand and begins assembling a polymer of new base pairs which are a complement the original strand.

DNA replication

8

This type of DNA replication leaves the original template DNA strands together and produces a copy of two new strains containing new DNA base pairs. (ABC = AB + C)

semiconservative

9

These types of enzymes catalyze DNA molecules very fast, very high fidelity copy, 1 mistake in every 10-100 billion pairings. Each works on individual sections until all coding of the strand is completed.

DNA polymerase

10

This type of enzymes helps the nucleus with partial unwinding of the double helix.

helicases

11

What is the name when RNA copies small portions of DNA code for proteins?

transcription

12

These types of enzymes open the double helix and copy one one gene, the enzyme moves along the complementary (template) strand, creating new strands of RNA which complements it.

polymerase enzymes

13

This directs the synthesis of a single polypeptide, or “a smaller section which codes for specific traits”.

Gene

14

This type of RNA is known as the “messenger” and encodes a copy of genetic information from DNA to ribosome.

mRNA

15

If a nucleic acid differs from DNA and uses uracil instead of thymine and contains extra hydroxyl groups on the ribose sugar, what type of nucleic acid is it?

RNA

16

If informational code from a DNA strand was used, with this data of TAGGCT and there was a template code of ATCCGA, then what code does the RNA strand have?

UAGGCU uracil is used for RNA instead of thymine. The code is UAGGCU.

17

in this type of RNA, further modification can occur only when the entire section of the gene is coded.

mRNA

18

These are base sequences or sections of sequences that do not code in protein. They are removed by cutting before mRNA leaves the nucleus.

Introns

19

This is a nucleotide sequence in mRNA, it does not code for part of the portent and is removed before mRNA is proceeds to be synthesized.

introns

20

This type of enzyme activity is responsible for removing unneeded bases (introns) by slicing and splicing the mRNA together.

spliceosome

21

When RNA has coded and spliced, where does it enter? It binds to the ribosome and undergoes a process called translation.

cytosol

22

What is the name of the nucleic acid that is important in critical in protein synthesis and is component of rRNA?

rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

23

What is this first step called? mRNA binds to ribosome and conforms active site. tRNA molecule binds to mRNA uses codon with own anticodon.

Initiation

24

This is a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in RNA and DNA.

Codon

25

This is a series of three nucleotides at the end of tRNA, a unit of code that corresponds to complementary cotton in messenger RNA.

anticodon

26

What transfers amino acids?

transfer RNA

27

theory on ‘central dogma’, had no experimental evidence, he felt it was more important, faith-based. We know his theory is generally true, w/exciptions.

Francis Crick

28

This theory says information always flows from the DNA to the RNA to the proteins.

Central dogma

29

A majority of viruses have intriguing strategies once they have reached a cell within. The viruses that are encapsulated breach into the cells, takes over the command and replicates, using it’s host, it transcribes it’s DNA to the RNA. The cells produces duplicates of the virus. The cell burst from the enzymes in which they are capsulated.

- my thoughts

30

This type of viruses incorporates the viral genome into the host genome of host, and the virus is reproduced through reverse transcription route.

retroviruses

31

This type of process occurs when a viral RNA is transcribed into complementary DNA sequence. In short, the invader writes their own code into the host.

Reverse Transcriptase

32

The damage and danger viruses cause to hosts includes, the alteration of host DNA, no proofreading mechanisms for viruses’ RNA/DNA, leading a significant number of mutations per day. This type of mechanism is difficult to treat or cure. Hepatitis B, C and HIV are examples.

- my thoughts