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NURS 2501 > Burns > Flashcards

Flashcards in Burns Deck (28):
1

Carbon Monoxide poisoning

Most frequent cause of death at burn scene
1. Has greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen
2. Binds as carboxyhemoglobin
3. Prevents RBCs from transporting oxygen to tissues
4. PaO2 and SaO2 levels are normal
5. Must measure COHgb levels ( > 60 % - death )

2

Rule of nines

1. Head ( ant + post ) - 9 %
2. Ant torso - 18 %
3. Post torso - 18 %
4. Leg ( ant + post ) - 18 %
5. Arm ( ant + post ) - 9 %
6. Genitalia - 1%

3

Involves epidermis, pink and red in color, blanches with pressure, mild edema, painful, heals - 3-5 days
E: sunburn

Superficial burn

4

Involves epidermis + possibly part of the dermis, pink or red, blisters , mild to moderate edema, heals - 2 weeks
E: scald burn with brief contact

Superficial Partial Thickness burn

5

Red or white, moderate edema, painful, soft dry eschar ; heals - 2-6 weeks - graft can be used .
E: scald, grease burn with prolonged contact

Deep Partial Thickness burn

6

Black, brown, - leathery appearance; severe edema, may or may not be painful, eschar is hard and inelastic; heals - weeks to months - possible loss of function and digits - graft required
E: prolonged exposure to source

Full Thickness burn

7

Parkland formula

4 ml x weight (kg) x TBSA (%)
1/2 of the volume over first 8 hours ( begins at the time of the burn )
1/2 over remaining 16 hrs

8

Bactericidal agent; little eschar penetration; transient leukopenia within 2-3 days

Silver Sulfadiazine (Silvadene)

9

Bacteriostatic, fungicidal; zero penetration of eschar ; turns everything black; hypotonic - Na and K depletion

Silver Nitrate

10

Hydrophilic based cream ; effective aginst gram +/- organisms; rapid diffusion eschar; causing burning pain for 20 min after application - Medicate !! can cause electrolyte imbalances - metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis (monitor ABGs)

Mafenide Acetare ( Sulfamylon)

11

Homograft/Allograft

from another human (cadaver)

12

Heterograft/Xenograft

from an species - pigskin

13

Autograft

from another part of your own body

14

Cardiac dysrhythmias are often evident in ... burns

electrical

15

Electrocuted patient - red/burgundy color urine - why ?

release of myoglobin from damaged muscles

16

Risk for cardiac arrhythmias or arrest ;
Causes coagulation necrosis - burn type ?

Electric

17

Hot cooking oil; can be caused by explosive flare - burn type ?

Thermal

18

Tissue adherence with protein hydrolysis - burn type ?

Chemical

19

May cause carbon monoxide poisoning; Indicated by facial burns and hoarseness - burn type

Smoke and inhalation

20

Complications of eschar formation

1. Infection
2. Compartment syndrome

21

Factors that may impair the circulatory system during hypovolemic or distributive shock

Increased blood viscosity
Circulating catecholamines

22

During the rehab phase of wound healing, the contour of scarring can be controlled with ...

pressure garments - must be worn 23 hours/day for 12-24 mo

23

acute gastroduodenal ulcer that occurs with the stress or injury; Burn ( ulcer develops within 24 hrs) - reduced GI blood flow and mucosal damage. Normally mucus lining the stomach - barrier to the hydrogen ions. TX- H2 histamine blockers + early enteral feeding

Curlling's ulcer

24

Resuscitation/Emergent Phase

onset through first 48 hrs

25

Acute Phase

diuresis to wound closure

26

Rehabilitation Phase

wound closure - patient has reached their highest level of functioning that is possible

27

Burns - blisters

leave the blisters intact because they protect wound from infection

28

What is the maximum temperature that the skin can tolerate without injury

104 F - 40 C