Flashcards in Business Strategy and Market Analysis Deck (28):
Define "strategic planning".
Strategic planning is the sequence of interrelated procedures for determining an entity's long-term goals and identifying the best approaches for achieving those goals.
Identify the major steps in a strategic planning process.
1. Establish entity's mission, values and objectives;
2. Assess the entity (internal analysis) and the environment in which it operates (external analysis; environmental scanning);
3. Establish goals;
4. Formulate strategies;
5. Evaluate and control strategic activities.
Define an entity's values and the operational role they play.
An entity's values are the underlying beliefs that govern the entity's operations. They prescribe the conduct of an entity in its relationship with other parties.
Define PEST analysis.
Provides framework for assessing and understanding macro-environment.
-Technological elements of an environment
Identify the kinds of factors that should be considered in a macro-environmental analysis.
Identify the kinds of political factors that should be considered in a political, economic, social and technological analysis (PEST analysis) of a macro-environment.
1. Political stability;
2. Tax policy;
3. Labor laws;
4. Environmental laws;
5. International trade attitudes and restrictions.
Identify the kinds of economic factors that should be considered in a political, economic, social and technological analysis (PEST analysis) of a macro-environment.
1. Economic structure, stability and growth rate;
2. Interest rate;
3. Inflation rate;
4. Currency exchange rates.
Identify the kinds of social factors that should be considered in a political, economic, social and technological analysis (PEST analysis) of a macro-environment.
1. Population growth rate;
2. Age distribution;
3. Educational attainment and career attitudes;
4. Health and safety characteristics.
Identify the kinds of technology factors that should be considered in a political, economic, social and technological analysis (PEST analysis) of a macro-environment.
1. Level of research and development activity;
2. State of automation capability;
3. Level of technology "savvy;"
4. Rate of technology change.
Define an "industry" for purposes of competitive analysis.
An industry consists of those entities that produce goods or provide services which are identical or close substitutes and which compete for the same customers.
Identify the five forces described by Michael Porter as determining the operating attractiveness and likely long-run profitability of an industry.
1. Threat of entry into the market by new competitors;
2. Threat of substitute goods or services;
3. Bargaining power of customers of the good or service;
4. Bargaining power of suppliers of inputs used by the industry;
5. Intensity of rivalry within the industry.
Identify factors that would help determine the extent to which new competitors are likely to enter an industry.
1. Capital investment required;
2. Access to raw materials, technology and suppliers;
3. Economies of scale required for profitability;
4. Customer loyalty and customer cost of switching providers;
5. Access to distribution channels;
6. Governmental impediments to entry.
Identify factors that would help determine the level of threat posed by substitute goods or services.
1. Availability of substitutes;
2. Ease of use of substitutes;
3. Relative price and performance of substitutes;
4. Buyers' brand loyalty;
5. Cost to buyers of switching to substitutes.
Identify factors that would help determine the bargaining power of buyers in an industry.
1. Extent of product standardization;
2. Number of suppliers;
3. Extent to which there are dominant buyers of the good/service;
4. Extent to which information about the good or service is available;
5. Cost to buyers of switching suppliers.
Identify factors that would help determine the bargaining power of suppliers in an industry.
1. Extent of substitutes for the product or service;
2. Relationship between the number of users (buyers) and suppliers (sellers);
3. Ability of supplier to move downstream in the distribution/sales channel
4. Extent to which supplier is unionized.
Identify factors that would help determine the level of rivalry in an industry.
1. Relative size of competitors in the industry;
2. Degree of product differentiation;
3. Cost structure of the industry;
4. Strategic objectives of firms in the industry;
5. Cost to customers of switching providers;
6. Cost associated with exiting industry.
Identify the categories of factors that should be considered in a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis (SWOT-type analysis) of the relationship between an entity and its environment.
Strengths of the entity (internal)
Weaknesses of the entity (internal)
Opportunities in the environment (market) (external)
Threats in the environment (market) (external)
Identify factors that might constitute strengths which provide an entity a relative competitive advantage in its market.
1. Ownership of patents, copyrights, etc.;
2. Favorable reputation;
3. Proprietary processes, including those that give cost advantage;
4. Exclusive or preferential access to natural resources/commodities;
5. Desirable location.
Identify factors that might constitute opportunities for an entity in a market.
1. Unmet market needs (demand);
2. Development or employment of new technology/processes;
3. Reduction in legal or regulatory restrictions;
4. Reduction of international trade barriers (quotas, tariffs, etc.).
Identify factors that might constitute external threats to an entity in a market.
1. New substitute products or services;
2. Changes in customer preferences;
3. Increases in legal or regulatory restrictions;
4. Increases in international trade barriers (quotas, tariffs, etc.);
5. Union demands.
Identify the three generic strategies enumerated by Michael Porter.
1. Cost leadership;
3. Focus (or Niche)
Define a "cost leadership strategy".
Under a cost leadership strategy, an entity seeks to be the low-cost provider for a given level of output in an industry. The strategy is intended to enable either higher gross profits than competitors or sales at a lower price to gain market share.
Define a "differentiation strategy".
Under a differentiation strategy, an entity seeks to develop and offer a product or service that has unique features for which customers are willing to pay a premium price that more than covers the extra cost of providing the product or service.
Define a "focus strategy".
Under a focus strategy, an entity focuses on a narrow industry segment (an industry subgroup or "niche") and seeks to achieve either:
1. a cost advantage, or
Define "(external) environmental scanning".
Environmental scanning is the assessment of the macro-environment in which an entity operates (or may operate) and the industry within that macro-environment. Thus, environmental scanning includes consideration and analysis of the economic system, economic market and industry in which an entity operates.
What are the major characteristics appropriate for an entity's goals?
An entity's goals should be SMART:
What are appropriate components associated with the evaluation and control element in a strategic planning context?
1. Determine what characteristics (attributes) to evaluate and measure;
2. Decide acceptable values (standards) for measurable characteristics;
3. Measure targeted characteristics;
4. Compare measurements with established acceptable values;
5. Implement changes needed to correct variances.