Flashcards in C2 - Construction Materials & Extracting Pure Copper Deck (24)
What are some examples of materials that come from the Earth's crust?
Some metals that come from the earths crust are : Aluminium and iron, rocks such as granite limestone and marble also come from the Earth's crust.
What are some examples of man made materials?
Bricks, cement, concrete and glass are all examples of man made materials.
What are rocks?
Rocks are usually a mixture of materials.
What are ores?
Ores are minerals that we can get useful materials from, Aluminium and iron are construction materials that can be extracted from their ores.
How is Glass made?
Glass is made by melting Limestone, sand and soda.
What is the process of making Glass?
Limestone must be heated with sand ( Silicon Dioxide) and soda, until it melt; When the mixture cools it will come out as glass.
What are bricks made from?
Bricks are made from clay.
What is clay made from?
Clay is a mineral formed from weathered and decomposed rock.
Why is clay easy to mold into bricks?
When clay is dug up from the ground it is soft, this makes it easy to mold into bricks.
What is the process of making a brick?
The clay can be hardened by firing at very high temperatures.
What makes clay bricks an ideal building material?
Bricks can withstand the weight of lots more bricks on top of them, making them an ideal building material.
How is Cement made?
Limestone and clay are heated to make cement.
What does clay contain?
Clay contains aluminium and silicates.
What is the process of making cement?
Powdered clay and powdered limestone are roasted in a rotating kiln to make a complex mixture of calcium and aluminium silicates to make a complex mixture of calcium and aluminium silicates called cement.
What is the process of making concrete? (Knowledge of making cement required).
Cement can be mixed with sand, aggregate and water to make concrete.
What is an advantage of using concrete over other building materials?
Concrete is a very quick and cheap way of constructing materials.
What is reinforced concrete?
Reinforced concrete is a composite material, it is a combination of concrete and a solid steel support ( such as steel rods).
Why is reinforced concrete a better construction material?
Reinforced concrete is a better construction material than ordinary concrete because it combines the hardness of concrete with the flexibility and the strength of steel.
What are the downsides to extracting rocks?
Extracting Rocks can cause environmental damage.
What are the downsides to using quarries?
Quarrying uses up land and destroys habitats.
It costs money to make quarry sites look pretty again, to bring in animals and tourists.
Quarrying process itself produces dust and makes alot of noise, often times dynamite is used.
Transporting the rocks can cause noise and pollution.
What are the downsides of not refilling quarry sites after use?
Disused sites can be dangerous to local inhabitants, every year people drown in former quarries that have been turned into lakes.
Disused mines can collapse and cause subsidence and damage to the local towns.
What is copper dug out of the ground as?
Copper is dug out of the ground as copper ore, (malachite is an example).
Electrolysis means splitting up with electricity, in the case of copper purification it means passing a current through a piece in order to split the pure copper off of the impurities.