# C2.1 Purity and separating mixtures Flashcards Preview

## C1-C3 > C2.1 Purity and separating mixtures > Flashcards

Flashcards in C2.1 Purity and separating mixtures Deck (45)
1
Q

What is relative atomic mass?

A

the mean mass of an atom of an element compared to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom

• if not prefect mark not perfect….be honest here *
2
Q

What does a chemical formula tell you?

A

how many atoms of each element there are in a unit of a substance

3
Q

What is a relative formula mass?

A

the mean mass of a unit of substance compared to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom

• if not prefect mark not perfect….be honest here *
4
Q

define empirical formula

A

the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of each element in a compound

5
Q

Calculate the relative formula mass of Mg(OH)2

Mg = 24.3, O = 16.0, H = 1.0

A

M(r) of Mg(OH)2 = 58.3

6
Q

How do you find the empirical formula of a chemical formula?

A

Divide the chemical formula by the highest common factor

7
Q

What does pure mean in scientific terminology?

A

a substance consisting of just one element or compound

8
Q

is water pure?

A

no, because it contains multiple minerals, distilled water is pure, however

9
Q

What is the melting point of a substance?

A

The temperature at which it changes from the solid state to the liquid state

10
Q

How many melting points does a pure substance have?

A

Only one

11
Q

How many melting points does an impure substance have?

A

Multiple, however many elements there are in the compound

12
Q

How can you tell a substance is impure looking at its melting point?

A
• it’s melting point is less than of the pure substance
• it often melts over a range of temperatures, not just one temperature
13
Q

Does the temperature of a pure substance change while it melts?

A

No, it stays constant

14
Q

How must you heat a substance to find out its melting point and why?

A
• slowly
• stirring it
So that the temperature of the whole sample can increase, not just the surface
15
Q

Why should you stir a substance while it melts? (1)

A

To ensure that the entire sample is at the same temperature

16
Q

What does chromatography separate?

A

mixtures of soluble substances

17
Q

what happens when a substance dissolves, and what is formed? (2)

A

-a solution forms
- the solute’s particles separate become completely mixed with the solvent’s particles

18
Q

what does filtration do?

A

separates an insoluble substance from a solvent/solution

19
Q

what feature of the filter paper allows filtration to occur?

A

it has tiny microscopic holes which prevent insoluble substances from passing

20
Q

what is the substance called which is left behind during filtration?

A

residue

21
Q

what is the substance which passes through the filterpaper called

A

filtrate

22
Q

how does crystallisation work?

A
• a solution is heated slowly until it becomes a saturated solution
• saturated solution is left to cool
• crystals form
23
Q

why must you heat a solution slowly (crystallisation)?

A

if you heat a solution too fast, a powder is formed (no crystals)

24
Q

how do you dry crystals?

A
• place them in a warm oven
• pat them with filter paper
25
Q

What is simple distillation used to separate?

A

to separate a solvent from a solution
eg. (oil and water)

26
Q

what does simple distillation rely on?

A

solvent having a much lower boiling point than solute

27
Q

describe simple distillation

A

1) solution is heated
2) solvent has low boiling point and so heats quicker than solute
3) solvent rises and condenses in vapour condenser
4) travels down the test tube

28
Q

what equipment is used during simple distillation?

A

condenser, test tube, bunsen burner, thermometer

29
Q

what is simple distillation useful for (in a lab)?

A

purifying water for experiments

30
Q

what does fractional distillation seperate?

A

Separates one or more liquids from a mixture of liquids

31
Q

how does fractional distillation separate substances?

A

depending on their boiling points

32
Q

how is fractional distaillation used industrially?

A

to separate crude oil into separate hydrocarbons

33
Q

describe the process of fractional distillation (in terms of an ethanol-water mixture)

A

1) vapours condenser on inside surface (heating it up)
2) vapour rises to fractioning column
3) water condenses and falls back down from flask (less than 100 degrees)
4) bioethanol fuel passes into the condenser (lower boiling point)
5) bioethanol fuel condenses

34
Q

how does the fractioning column help improve the separation of the mixture?

A
• large surface area where vapours condense
• column becomes hottest at bottom and coolest at top
35
Q

what are the advantages of TLC (thin-layer chromatography) over paper chromatography?

A
• it is quicker
• more accurate results (as TLC is more sensitive)
• a smaller sample can be used
• large range of stationary phases and solvents to choose from
36
Q

How does TLC’s stationary phase work?

A

a thin layer of silica or alumina powder is spread over a plate of glass or plastic

37
Q

how is gas chromatography different to paper or TLC?

A
• the stationary phase is silica or aluminium powder packed into a metal column
• the mobile phase is an unreactive carrier gas
38
Q

what does gas chromatography do?

A

separates the components and measures their amounts on a chromatogram

39
Q

how is the the sample separated during gas chromatography?

A

depending on how strongly they bond to the stationary phase

40
Q

how do you calculate the rf value?

A

distance travelled by solute (or spot) / distance travelled by solvent

41
Q

how do you separate a soluble and insoluble substance?

A

filtration

42
Q

how do you separate two or more substances in the liquid state?

A

fractional distillation

43
Q

how do you separate coloured soluble substances?

A

chromatography

44
Q

if a component travels very high during chromatography, what property does it have?

A

highly soluble (dissolves easily in solvent)

45
Q

when calculating rf value, where do you measure the spot from, and where the solvent?

A

spot - from the PENCIL line to MIDPOINT on spot
solvent - from PENCIL line to where it stops