C3.1 Metals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C3.1 Metals Deck (17)
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1

Name properties of metals

-High MP and BPs
-Good conductors of heat and electricity
-Malleable (easily hammered)
-Ductile (drawn into wires)
-Opaque
-High density
-Shiny
-Solid at room temperature (except Mercury)
-Form positive ions
-Used to form strong alloys

2

What is the structure of metals

-Regular lattice structure
-Delocalised electrons surrounding positive metal ions
-Electrons and ions carry a strong force of electrostatic attraction
Electrons vibrate at fixed positions

3

Explanation on HIGH MP AND BP of metals

Strong forces of electrostatic attraction which means more thermal energy is needed to break those forces

4

Explanation on ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY of metals

There are delocalised electrons in a metal's structure so they can carry a charge

5

Explanation on MALLEABILITY of metals

The positive ions and and delocalised electrons can shift depending on the strength of the electrostatic forces as when thermal energy is applied the lattice breaks allowing the ions and electrons to freely move

6

Reactivity series in order

Potassium
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Zinc
Iron
Lead
HYDROGEN
Copper
Silver

7

Equation of reactive metals reacting with acid

ACID + METAL ----> SALT + HYDROGEN
-The more vigorous the reaction is, is the indicator that the metal is highly reactive
-The more reactive the metal, the faster and more vigorous the reaction is (eg. more bubbles produced)

8

Equation of metals with water

METAL + WATER ----> METAL HYDROXIDE + HYDROGEN
OR
less reactive metal + steam ----> metal oxide + hydrogen
-Very reactive metals (like potassium ) when reacted with water produce a metal hydroxide and react more vigorously
-Less reactive metals (like aluminium) produced a metal oxide
-Copper, lead and silver do not react with either

9

Oxidation definition

Gain of oxygen by a substance

10

Reduction definition

Loss of oxygen by a substance

11

Name 3 extraction methods of metals

-Electrolysis (applies to the most reactive metals that are more reactive than aluminum)

-Reduction with carbon (applies to all metals less reactive than carbon but more reactive than hydrogen)

-Phytomining

-Bioleaching

12

What is a displacement reaction?

When a more reactive element displaces a lesser reactive one in a reaction

13

Equation of reduction of carbon with metals

METAL OXIDE + CARBON ----> METAL+ CARBON DIOXIDE

14

Explanation on Phytomining

-Grow plants in soil containing metal compounds and because plants cannot get rid of them the metals build up in the leaves
-The plants are harvested and burned leaving ash which contains the metal compound
-The metal is extracted from the ash via electrolysis

15

Explanation on Bioleaching

-Use bacteria to covert insoluble metal compounds in ores to soluble ones which separates the metal from the ore
-The solution produced in the process (leachate) contains a dilute solution of metal ions which are extracted by electrolysis or displacement by metals

16

Advantages of Bioleaching and Phytomining

-Less damaging to the environment
-Uses less energy
-Cheaper

17

Disadvantages of Bioleaching and Phytomining

-Take a large amount of time to produce a large quantity of metal