C9: Crude Oil and Fuels Flashcards Preview

iGCSE Chemistry > C9: Crude Oil and Fuels > Flashcards

Flashcards in C9: Crude Oil and Fuels Deck (23):
1

Hydrocarbons

A compound containing only Hydrogen and Carbon.

2

Alkanes

Saturated Hydrocarbons
-ane
H(n)C(2n+2)

3

Stem names 1-5

Meth-
Eth-
Prop-
But-
Pent-

4

Properties of short chain hydrocarbons

> Low boiling point
> High volatility
> Low viscosity (V runny)
> Burn without a smoky flame.

5

Properties of long chain hydrocarbons

> High boiling point
> Low volatility
> High viscosity (not runny)
> Burn with a smoky flame

6

Fractional Distillation

A way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substances at different temperatures, then condensing them and collecting the liquids.

7

What is the temperature range of a fractionating column?

350-50 degrees.

8

Is short or long chain hydrocarbons better as fuels?

Short.

9

Oxidation reaction

When oxygen is added to a substance (or when electrons are lost).

10

Reduction reaction

When a oxygen is removed from a substance (or when electrons are gained).

11

Alkane + Oxygen ->

Carbon Dioxide + Water

12

Sulfur Dioxide

A toxic gas (formula SO2) that causes acid rain.

13

How does carbon dioxide contribute to climate change?

It absorbs radiation which has been emitted from the surface of the earth as energy, causing it to remain in the atmosphere.

14

Incomplete combustion

When a fuel burns in insufficient oxygen, producing carbon monoxide as a toxic product.

15

How does CO kill humans?

It is picked up by red blood cells instead of Oxygen. It is colourless and odourless.

16

Nitrogen Oxides

Gaseous pollutant given off by motor vehicles; a cause of acid rain.

17

Particulates

Small solid particles of carbon and hydrocarbons given off from motor vehicles as a result of incomplete combustion of their fuel.

18

Global Dimming

The reflection of sunlight back into space, caused by particulates. Possible cause of cancer.

19

Advantages of biofuels

> Less harmful if spilled.
> Burns more cleanly (Less particulates emitted).
> Will become cheaper as resources dwindle.
> Plants absorb CO2 as they grow, making biofuels 'carbon dioxide neutral'. (CO2 still used in fertilisation, harvesting, extracting and processing, and transportation).

20

Disadvantages of biofuels

> Use farmland, so less is available for crop production.
> Could result in famine, deforestation and species becoming extinct as their habitats are destroyed.

21

Fermentation

The reaction in which enzymes in yeast turn glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

22

Fermentation Reaction

Glucose -> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

23

Why is hydrogen a good potential source of power?

It reacts to produce water; it is clean and environmentally friendly.