Flashcards in C9: Crude Oil and Fuels Deck (23):
A compound containing only Hydrogen and Carbon.
Stem names 1-5
Properties of short chain hydrocarbons
> Low boiling point
> High volatility
> Low viscosity (V runny)
> Burn without a smoky flame.
Properties of long chain hydrocarbons
> High boiling point
> Low volatility
> High viscosity (not runny)
> Burn with a smoky flame
A way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substances at different temperatures, then condensing them and collecting the liquids.
What is the temperature range of a fractionating column?
Is short or long chain hydrocarbons better as fuels?
When oxygen is added to a substance (or when electrons are lost).
When a oxygen is removed from a substance (or when electrons are gained).
Alkane + Oxygen ->
Carbon Dioxide + Water
A toxic gas (formula SO2) that causes acid rain.
How does carbon dioxide contribute to climate change?
It absorbs radiation which has been emitted from the surface of the earth as energy, causing it to remain in the atmosphere.
When a fuel burns in insufficient oxygen, producing carbon monoxide as a toxic product.
How does CO kill humans?
It is picked up by red blood cells instead of Oxygen. It is colourless and odourless.
Gaseous pollutant given off by motor vehicles; a cause of acid rain.
Small solid particles of carbon and hydrocarbons given off from motor vehicles as a result of incomplete combustion of their fuel.
The reflection of sunlight back into space, caused by particulates. Possible cause of cancer.
Advantages of biofuels
> Less harmful if spilled.
> Burns more cleanly (Less particulates emitted).
> Will become cheaper as resources dwindle.
> Plants absorb CO2 as they grow, making biofuels 'carbon dioxide neutral'. (CO2 still used in fertilisation, harvesting, extracting and processing, and transportation).
Disadvantages of biofuels
> Use farmland, so less is available for crop production.
> Could result in famine, deforestation and species becoming extinct as their habitats are destroyed.
The reaction in which enzymes in yeast turn glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Glucose -> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2