What is neoplasm?
Abnormal mass of tissue growth
Growth continues after stimulus is removed
What do we call the cancer cells?
What is stroma?
Tissue around the cancer cels that consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, macrophages
How to tell if a toy our is benign or malignant by name?
Benign tumours end in -Oma
Except sarcoma and carcinoma
Difference between malignant and benign tumours
Malignant = undifferentiated cells
Infiltrate basal Latina
4 ways of metastasis
Contiguous = touching
3 ways of inheriting cancer
Autosomal dominant = familial adenomatous polyposis
Defective DNA repair = Xeroderma pigmentosum
Familial cancer syndrome = unknown cause but runs in family e.e multiple endocrine neoplasia
Non hereditary cancers
Risk factor e.g. liver cirrhosis and HCC
Inflammation and cytokines can cause cancer
What is carcinogenesis?
Acquiring malignancy in over a period of time due to multiple mutation
Chemicals= may need to be processed elder they are carcinogenic
Viruses e.g. HPV cervical cancer
4 regulatory genes and examples of cancers caused by loss of regulation in each
Oncogene = burkitts lymphoma mYC
Tumour suppressor genes = BRCA 1/2
DNA repair genes = genomic instability syndrome
Apoptosis = bcl2 unregulated in lymphomas
Diagnosis and testing
Fine needle aspiration
PCR / FISH
Difference between grading and staging?
Grading = histological , based on differentiation
Staging = size, spread to lymph nodes, metastasis = for patient
STAGING IS MORE USEFUL!!