Cancer Biology Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Clinical Sciences > Cancer Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Biology Deck (26)
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1

Define apoptosis

Programmed cell death, effectors of apoptosis are caspases

2

Define necrosis

Traumatic cell death e.g. in frostbite or CVA

3

Define hypertrophy

An increase in the size of a tissue caused by an increase in the size of constituent cells.

4

Define hyperplasia

An increase in the size of a tissue caused by an increase in the number of the constituent cells.

5

Define atrophy

A decrease in the size of a tissue caused by a decrease in the number of constituent cells or a decrease in their size.

6

Define metaplasia

A change in differentiation of a cell from one fully differentiated type to a different fully-differentiated type.

7

Give some examples of metaplasia

Barrett's oesophagus, losing cilia in the bronchi of the lungs of a smoker

8

Define dysplasia

An imprecise term for the morphological changes seen in cells in the progression to becoming cancer.
It is sometimes used to refer to a developmental abnormality.

9

What is conventional chemotherapy good for?

Fast dividing tumours such as germ cell tumours of the testis, acute leukaemias, lymphomas, embryonal paediatric tumours and choriocarcinomas.

10

What is conventional chemotherapy selective for?

Fast replicating cells including hair, bone marrow, gut lining and cancer cells. It is not selective for tumour cells.

11

What is the difference between targeted chemotherapy and conventional chemotherapy?

Targeted chemotherapy exploits some differences between cancer cells and normal cells. It it more effective and has less side effects.

12

Name two different types of targeted chemotherapy.

Monoclonal antibodies e.g. Herceptin against the HER2 receptor.
Small molecular inhibitors e.g. Cetuximab against EGFR or Gleevec which inhibits c-kit tyrosine kinase.

13

What does invasion and metastasis of the basement membrane involve?

Cell motility and proteases:
Matrix metalloproteinases
Collagenase
Cathepsin D
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator

14

What are the routes of metastasis?

Direct
Via lymphatics
Transcoelomic - through a body cavity
CNS spread
Field change - when several sites are exposed to the same carcinogen leading to multiple primaries
Via the bloodstream

15

What is carcinogenesis?

The transformation of normal, differentiated cells to neoplastic cells through permanent genetic mutations.

16

What are carcinogens?

Agents that are known or suspected to cause tumours; they cause cancer.

17

Give some examples of carcinogens.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic amines
Nitrosamines
Alkylating agents
UVA/UVB light
Oestrogen
Aflatoxin
Shistosoma
Asbestos, chromium and arsenic

18

Define neoplasm

A lesion resulting from the AUTONOMOUS ABNORMAL growth of cells which PERSISTS after the initiating stimulus has been removed.

19

What are neoplastic cells?

They derive from nucleated cells and are usually monoclonal. The growth pattern and synthetic activity is related to the parent cell.

20

What is the stroma?

A connective tissue framework providing mechanical support and nutrition; it is normally made of collagen. It is recruited by the neoplasm and is rich in fibroblasts and blood vessels.

21

What is a papilloma?

A benign tumour of non-glandular, non-secretory epithelium.

22

What is an adenoma?

A benign tumour of glandular or secretory epithelium.

23

What is a carcinoma?

A malignant tumour of epithelial cells.

24

What is an adenocarcinoma?

Carcinomas of glandular epithelium.

25

What is a sarcoma?

A cancer of mesenchymal/connective tissue.

26

Give some examples of malignant tumours that are not carcinomas or sarcomas.

Melanoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma.