Flashcards in Cancer Biology Deck (26)
Programmed cell death, effectors of apoptosis are caspases
Traumatic cell death e.g. in frostbite or CVA
An increase in the size of a tissue caused by an increase in the size of constituent cells.
An increase in the size of a tissue caused by an increase in the number of the constituent cells.
A decrease in the size of a tissue caused by a decrease in the number of constituent cells or a decrease in their size.
A change in differentiation of a cell from one fully differentiated type to a different fully-differentiated type.
Give some examples of metaplasia
Barrett's oesophagus, losing cilia in the bronchi of the lungs of a smoker
An imprecise term for the morphological changes seen in cells in the progression to becoming cancer.
It is sometimes used to refer to a developmental abnormality.
What is conventional chemotherapy good for?
Fast dividing tumours such as germ cell tumours of the testis, acute leukaemias, lymphomas, embryonal paediatric tumours and choriocarcinomas.
What is conventional chemotherapy selective for?
Fast replicating cells including hair, bone marrow, gut lining and cancer cells. It is not selective for tumour cells.
What is the difference between targeted chemotherapy and conventional chemotherapy?
Targeted chemotherapy exploits some differences between cancer cells and normal cells. It it more effective and has less side effects.
Name two different types of targeted chemotherapy.
Monoclonal antibodies e.g. Herceptin against the HER2 receptor.
Small molecular inhibitors e.g. Cetuximab against EGFR or Gleevec which inhibits c-kit tyrosine kinase.
What does invasion and metastasis of the basement membrane involve?
Cell motility and proteases:
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator
What are the routes of metastasis?
Transcoelomic - through a body cavity
Field change - when several sites are exposed to the same carcinogen leading to multiple primaries
Via the bloodstream
What is carcinogenesis?
The transformation of normal, differentiated cells to neoplastic cells through permanent genetic mutations.
What are carcinogens?
Agents that are known or suspected to cause tumours; they cause cancer.
Give some examples of carcinogens.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Asbestos, chromium and arsenic
A lesion resulting from the AUTONOMOUS ABNORMAL growth of cells which PERSISTS after the initiating stimulus has been removed.
What are neoplastic cells?
They derive from nucleated cells and are usually monoclonal. The growth pattern and synthetic activity is related to the parent cell.
What is the stroma?
A connective tissue framework providing mechanical support and nutrition; it is normally made of collagen. It is recruited by the neoplasm and is rich in fibroblasts and blood vessels.
What is a papilloma?
A benign tumour of non-glandular, non-secretory epithelium.
What is an adenoma?
A benign tumour of glandular or secretory epithelium.
What is a carcinoma?
A malignant tumour of epithelial cells.
What is an adenocarcinoma?
Carcinomas of glandular epithelium.
What is a sarcoma?
A cancer of mesenchymal/connective tissue.