Cancer terminology Flashcards Preview

Gynaecology > Cancer terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer terminology Deck (21):
1

Metaplasia

Transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type

2

Dysplasia

Abnormal growth or development of cells

3

Dyskaryosis

Abnormal nucleus

4

Carcinoma

Category of types of cancer that develop from epithelial cells

5

Sarcoma

Cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal (connective tissue) origin

6

Squamous cell carcinoma

*Cancer that result from squamous cells
*These cells form the surface of the skin and lining of the hollow organs in the body

7

Adenocarcinoma

Cancer of the epithelial tissue that has glandular origin

8

Radical trachelectomy

*Surgery to remove the cervix, upper part of the vagina and surround supporting tissues
*lymph nodes removed and checked whether cancer has spread beyond cervix

9

Radical hysterectomy

*The uterus and surround tissue are removed including: fallopian tubes, part of the vagina, ovaries, lymph glands and fatty tissue

10

Brachytherapy

Radioactive implants, such a seeds/pellets/wires/plates are put near or inside the tumour
*Radioactivity only affects tissue that is very close to the implant

11

Hyperplasia

Enlargement of organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells often as an initial stage in the development of cancer

12

Atypia

Histopathologic term for structural abnormality in a cell

13

Well differentiated (low grade)

Tumour cells look organised and more like normal tissue

14

Poorly differentiated (High grade)

Tumour cells look disorganised, not normal and tend to spread and grow faster

15

Keratinize

Change or become changed into a form containing keratin

16

Keratin

*Key structural protein making up hair, nails etc
*also protein that protects epithelial cells from damage or stress

17

De novo

Starting from the beginning, brand new

18

Cancer grade

Describe the appearance of the cancerous cells

19

Cancer stage

Described the size of the tumour and how far it has spread from where it originated

20

Sentinel node

First few lymph node into which a tumour drains

21

Lymphedema

Impaired flow of the lymphatic system causes swollen extremities